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The index here printed was compiled originally for the purposes of a 
paper on Benvenuto da Irnola, which was read a year or two ago before 
the Oxford Dante Society, and which has since been published by the 
Clarendon Press. 1 The notes and references to the various works quoted 
were added later, with a view to establish in some measure the sources upon 
which Benvenuto drew for his material, and incidentally to illustrate the 
relations in which he stood, as a scholar and humanist, to his two great 
contemporaries, Petrarch and Boccaccio. 

I have not attempted to identify all the references in every case (for 
instance, to the works of Aristotle, Cicero. Livy, Ovid, Pliny, or Virgil), 
which would have involved an amount of labour altogether disproportionate 
to the value of the results : and in the cases where I have attempted to 
identify the references 1 have not by any means always succeeded (for 
example, in the cases of Orosius and Valerius Maximus). 2 

Some of the questions which have arisen in the course of my investiga- 
tions are of considerable interest. The most important of these, namely, 
Benvenuto's knowledge of Homer, and the sources whence he derived it, I 
have dealt with at some length in an article which was published recently in 
Romania (XXIX. 403-41 5), and which, by kind permission of the directors 
of that journal, is now reprinted as an appendix to the present paper. 
Another point of interest is Benvenuto's reference to the lost De Consiliis 

1 In An English Miscellany, a volume of essays published in commemoration of Dr. F. J. 
Furnivall's seventy-fifth birthday. Oxford. 1901. 

2 This is in part due to the fact that Benvenuto often quotes very loosely ; but I have 
little doubt that many of the references which I have missed might be identified by the 
expenditure of rather more time than I have been able to spare for the purpose. 



of Cicero, which, if his quotation be actually made at first hand, must have 
been extant, in part at least, in the second half of the fourteenth century. 1 

To Petrarch, whose acquaintance he made at Bologna in 1364, Benve- 
nuto's references are very frequent, the poet's name being mentioned no 
less than thirty times. Benvenuto twice (I. 10 ; IV. 230) records the fact 
that Petrarch had addressed an epistle to himself, from which he gives 
extracts. This letter, which was one of the last, if not actually the last, 
written by Petrarch before his death, was addressed to Benvenuto from 
Padua in February, 1374, and was written in response to an enquiry from 
the latter as to whether poetry ought to be included among the liberal arts. 
Benvenuto's reply, only a portion of which has been preserved, contains an 
interesting statement regarding his Commentary on the Divina Commedia, 
from which it appears that the first draft at any rate of his magnum opus 
was completed in the year 1373. Writing in the spring of the following 
year, he mentions this fact, and promises to send a copy of the work to 
Petrarch : — 

* Scias me anno praeterito extremam manum commentariis meis, quae 
olim tanto opere erflagitasti, in Dantem praeceptorem meum imposuisse. 
Mittam ubi fidum fuero nactus nuntiura.' 5 

Benvenuto also refers to several of Petrarch's other writings, viz. the 
Apologia contra Galium, the Itinerariutn Syriacum, his Eclogues} his 
Penitential Psalms, and his famous letter to Boccaccio concerning Dante. 
To the Africa, so far as I am aware, he makes no allusion, nor to the Italian 
Sonnets, with the exception of the one beginning 4 Dell' empia Babilonia,' 
which is glanced at apparently in a passage relating to Avignon (II. 59). 

Benvenuto's indebtedness to his * venerabilis praeceptor' Boccaccio is 
very extensive, much more so than appears on the surface : for while he 
makes free use of Boccaccio's writings, Boccaccio's name is comparatively 
seldom mentioned as his authority (except where he derived his information 
from him by word of mouth). The Decamcrone, for instance, is drawn 
upon, sometimes at considerable length, more than a dozen times, yet the 
book itself is only once named (III. 169). It is significant of the estimate in 
which works in the vulgar tongue (always excepting the Divina Commedia) 
were held in that age, that in his list of Boccaccio's works (V. 164) Benve- 
nuto does not so much as hint at the existence of the Decamcrone, though, 

1 See my note in the (London) Athencrum. April 1, 1899. 

2 This letter, the authenticity of which has been impugned in some quarters, was first 
printed in the 1521 edition of Boccaccio's Amoroso Visione in the * Apologia di Gieronimo 
Claricio imolese contro i detrattori della poesia di Messer Giovanni Boccaccio.' 

8 Benvenuto wrote a commentary on Petrarch's Eclogues, which was printed at Venice 
in 1516. 


as we have seen, he mentions it elsewhere, and made liberal excerpts 
from it. In like fashion, as is well known, Petrarch set no great store by 
his Italian poems, but based his hopes of immortality on his Latin poem 
Africa, 1 which at the present day is only known to the curious few. 

Benvenuto's personal relations with Boccaccio must have been of a more 
or less intimate nature, to judge from the numerous passages in the Com- 
mentary in which he speaks of Boccaccio as having furnished him with 
information. It has been plausibly conjectured, indeed, that Boccaccio at 
one time was actually Benvenuto's preceptor — at any rate in one sense 
the latter sat at Boccaccio's feet, for he tells us in the Commentary that 
he attended part of his revered master's course of lectures on the Divina 
Commcdia, which were delivered by him in the church of Santo Stefano 
in Florence as the first occupant of the newly founded Dante chair (V. 145). 

Benvenuto also had relations with Coluccio Salutati, the Florentine 
secretary, with whom he corresponded, and to whom he was indebted for 
at least one item of erudition in his Commentary, 2 though Coluccio's name 
is nowhere mentioned. 

The authors quoted by Benvenuto make a very imposing list, the total 
number being about a hundred and eighty. A considerable proportion of 
these, however, are quoted at second hand, including all the Greek authors 
named, it being certain that Benvenuto had hardly the smallest smattering 
of Greek. Nevertheless, after making due allowance for second-hand quo- 
tations, it will be seen that Benvenuto's range of reading was a pretty 
wide one. 3 

In compiling my index I have confined myself for the most part to the 
authorities actually named by Benvenuto. These, however, certainly do 
not cover the whole of the sources upon which he drew. For instance, he 
undoubtedly made considerable use of the Florentine Chronicle of Giovanni 
Villani, yet Villani's name is nowhere mentioned in the Commentary. Simi- 
larly, it is evident that Benvenuto availed himself of the labours of some 
of his predecessors, such as Jacopo della Lana, the author of the Ottimo 

1 It is an interesting fact that Benvenuto was largely instrumental in preserving the 
Africa from mutilation, if not destruction, at the hands of Petrarch's son-in-law, Frances- 
cuolo da Brossano. shortly after the poet's death. (See my paper on Benvenuto da /mo/a 
and his Commentary on the Divina Commedia in An English Miscellany, pp. 436-461.) 

2 Namely, for the quotation from Sidonius (I. 180). See the index. 

8 Among the more or less **out of the way" authorities (exclusive of classical writers) 
quoted by him are Walter Map (' Gualterius Anglicus'). Eginhard. Gautier de Lille (-Galli- 
cus ille qui describit Alexandreidam metrice '), the Pantheon of GofTredo da Viterbo. H*li- 
nand, the Policraticus of John of Salisbury ('Johannes Anglicus'), Paulus Diaconus, 
Remigius Antissiodorensis, the Chronica de Gestis Hispaniae of Rodriguez of Toledo, and 
the Hist or ia Karoli attributed to Archbishop Turpin. 


Comento* and others ; as well as of such fertile mines of anecdote as the 
Provencal lives of the Troubadours. 2 

To indicate and identify all these unacknowledged obligations of Benve- 
nuto was beyond the scope of my plan. I have drawn attention to a few 
of them here and there, 3 but I have left ample gleanings for any one who 
should follow in my track. 

I can only express the hope, in conclusion, that my own work, such as 
it is, may serve as the groundwork of a more serious attempt on the part 
of some future worker in the same field. Such an attempt, if conscien- 
tiously undertaken, might be made to contribute, among other things, an 
interesting chapter to the history of humanism in Italy. 

It remains for me to acknowledge my indebtedness to the following 
works, among others, which will be found constantly referred to in my 
notes, viz. Studj suite Opcrc La tine del Boccaccio by Attilio Hortis 
(Trieste, 1879), and Petrarquc et Thutnanisme en Italic by Pierre de 
Nolhac (Paris, 1892). I have also availed myself, in a lesser degree, of 
the Epistolario di Coluccio Sa lu tali, in the course of publication under 
the editorship of F. Novati (Vols. I — I II. Rome, 1 891-6). 

Dorney Wood, Burn ham, Bucks. 
England. July, 1900. 

1 For example, see the index under Albumasar, Alcabitius. and Martinis 

2 For instance, in the accounts of Bertran de Born (II. 57;). and of Sordello till. 17;). 
In the case of the latter Benvenuto appears to have had access to a version which differs 
from the one now extant. 

8 See, for instance, Albertus Magnus. Boccaccus. and Villani. in the index. 




i. The references are to volume and page of Vernon and Lacaita's edition 
of the Commentary (Benevenuti de Rambaldis dc Imola Comentum super 
Dan t is Aldigherii Comoediam, nunc prim urn integre in lucent cdi/um, 
sumptibus Guilielmi Warren Vernon* curante Jacobo Philippo Lacaita), 
published at Florence in five volumes (large Svo) in 18S7. 

2. References to volume and page, or to page alone, /// brackets [e.g. 
Aesofus, (I. in); (III. 104); Boccaccius, Decameronc (I. 95, 167-S, 
etc!) ] f indicate that in the passages in question the works quoted are not 
named by Benvenuto. 

3. The following data, though not strictly within the scope of the index, 
are supplied as being of general interest in connexion with Benvenuto and 
his Commentary. The chronological table serves to illustrate the list of 
contemporary allusions. The first draft of the Commentary was completed 
in 1373 (see Introductory Note), but additions were made to it subse- 
quently. The latest of these which can be dated with certainty is the 
allusion to the antipope Robert of Geneva (Clement VII.) «de anno prae- 
senti MCCCLXXLV (II. S). 


Dante Alighieri . . . 1265-1321 Boccaccio 13*3-1375 

Petrarca 1304-1374 Benvenuto . . circ. 1 338-1 390 1 

Sovereigns Contemporary with Benvenuto. 

Louis IV. of Bavaria . 1314-1347 Wenceslas .... 1378-1400 
Charles IV 1347-1378 

1 For these dates, see Rossi-Case, Di Afaestro Benvenuto da Imola, pp. 20-1, 96 n. 1. 




Benedict XII. . . . i334-*34i Gregory XI 1370-1378 

Clement VI 1342-1352 Urban VI 1378-1389 

Innocent VI. . . . 1352-1362 (Clement VII. . . .1378-1394) 

Urban V 1362-1370 Boniface IX. . . . 1 389-1404 

Kings of A r agon, 

Alphonso IV. ... 1 327-1336 John 1 386-1 396 

Peter IV 1 336-1 386 

Kings of Castile. 

Alphonso XI. . . . 1312-1350 Henry II 1368-1379 

Peter the Cruel . . . 1350-1368 John 1379" I 39° 

Kings of England. 
Edward III 1 327-1 377 Richard II 1 377-1 399 

Kings of France. 

Philip VI 1328-1350 Charles V 1364-1380 

John 1350-1364 Charles VI 1380-1422 

Kings of Naples. 

Robert I3°9-1343 Charles III 1382-1386 

Joanna 1 343-1 3S2 Ladislas 1 386-1414 

Kings of Sicily. 

Peter II i337-»342 Frederick II. . . . 1355-1377 

Louis I34--I355 Mary 1377-1402 

Allusions in the Commentary to Contemporary Events. 

The defeat and capture of King John of France by the English (at 
Poictiers, 19 Sept., 1356), I. 261 ; II. 55 ; III. 532 ; V. 248 ; the defeat and 
death of Peter the Cruel of Castile at the hands of his natural brother 
(Henry, 1368), I. 261; the defence of Pavia against the Visconti by the 
friar Jacopo Bossolaro, who by his eloquence stirred up the people to 
resistance (1 356-1359), I. 322-3; the coronation of the Emperor Charles 
IV. at Aries during the reign of Pope Urban V. (4 June, 1365), I. 326 ; the 
excesses committed by the foreign mercenaries (English, Germans, Britons, 


Gascons, and Hungarians) in Italy, I. 401 (cf. I. 394, 396) ; the miserable 
condition of Crete, then known as Candia, under the tyranny of the 
Venetians, I. 487 ; the destruction of the Castello Sant' Angelo in Rome 
during the riots after the election of Robert of Geneva (Clement VII.) as 
antipope to Urban VI. 'de anno praesenti MCCCLXXIX' (1379), II. 8 ; 
the antipope Robert of Geneva (Clement VII., 1 378-1 394), II. 53 (cf. II. 
8); the subsidies voted by Clement VI. in aid of King John of France* 
against the English, and the defeat and capture of the French king (at 
Poictiers, 19 Sept, 1356), II. 55 (cf. I. 261); the five kingdoms of the 
Spanish peninsula, viz. Castile, Aragon, Navarre, Portugal, and the 
Moorish kingdom of Granada, II. 136 ; many of the princes and lords of 
Italy, while renowned abroad, are evil-doers and oppressors in their own 
country, II. 268; the decayed condition of Ravenna, which in Dante's 
day was a flourishing city, II. 306; the great plagues in Italy of 1348 
(Boccaccio's plague) and 1362, in the former of which ninety percent of 
the population of Sardinia perished, II. 397-8 ; the decayed condition of 
Pisa after its long war with Florentines (1356-1364), II. 533; the 
miserable condition of Italy, which was far worse than in Dante's day, III. 
1 80-1, 397 ; the two visits of the emperor, Charles IV., to Italy (Oct., 1354 ; 
May, 1368), and his departure thence on the second occasion 'colla borsa 
piena, ma con poca gloria,' III. 186-7; Prague, the seat of the emperor, 
Charles IV. (who was also king of Bohemia), III. 209 ; the harassing of 
Lombardy by Bernabo and Galeazzo Visconti, III. 235; the costume of 
the Doge of Venice, III. 315 ; the miserable condition of Romagna and 
of the rest of Italy, III. 397 (cf. III. 1S0-1); the shameful marriage of 
the daughter (Isabella) of King John of France, who was captured by the 
English (at Poictiers, 19 Sept., 1356), to Gian Galeazzo de' Visconti of 
Milan (June, 1360), III. 532 (cf. I. 261 ; II. 55) ; the arts whereby the 
Florentine women add to their charms, and their habits of feasting, IV. 62 ; 
the Hellespont, called the Bras de Saint George, from the church of that 
name near Constantinople, IV. 170; the neglect of poets and poetry owing 
to the prevailing greed for gain, IV. 303; the cult of the emperor for 
Bacchus, IV. 305 ; the names of Guelph and Ghibelline no longer remem- 
bered in Italy, IV. 453 ; Louis the Great, king of Hungary (1342- 138 2 ; of 
Poland, 1 370-1 382), IV. 489 ; the extravagant dress of women, such as the 
habit of even bakers' wives wearing pearls on their shoes in Venice, Padua, 
and Genoa, V. 145; the practice of giving enormous dowries, V. 146; 
the wandering habits of the Florentines, who go and setde in France, 
Flanders, England, and Brabant, V. 149; Cola di Rienzi's contemptuous 
application of the letters S. P. Q. R. to the Roman populace, V. 1.8 1-2; 


the invasion of France by the English and their capture of the French 
king (at Poictiers), V. 248 (cf. I. 261 ; II. 55 ; III. 532) ; the invasion and 
conquest of Cyprus by the Genoese (Oct, 1373), a just punishment for 
their effeminacy, luxury, and dissoluteness, V. 252 ; Urban V. compared to 
Ser Ciappelletto of Boccaccio's tale (Decam. I. 1), V. 262. 

Autobiographical and Personal Details from Benyenuto's Commentary. 

The anecdote told him by Boccaccio of the Florentine boys and the 
leopard (Jonza), I. 35 ; his doubts as to his fitness to write a commentary 
upon the Divina Commedia, I. 78 ; his experience of tramps and beggars 
in Savoy and Provence, and especially at Avignon, I. 116; his comparison 
of Dante's Hell to the amphitheatre at Verona, and the <Corbis' at 
Bologna, I. 185 ; his contempt for the romances of the Round Table, 
which are in everybody's mouth, and which he characterises as 'frivola et 
vana,' I. 204 ; his account of the fight between two of his students, who 
rolled on the ground, and thumped and scratched and bit each other, I. 269 ; 
his description of the ancient fortifications at Padua, I. 294 ; his visit to 
the labyrinthine cave near Vicenza, I. 387; his experience of the snow 
while crossing the Alps, I. 472 ; his report of the wonderful herbage on 
Mt. Ida in Crete, which turns yellow the teeth of the herds which graze it, 

I. 488 ; his acquaintance with the Lago di Garda, Peschiera, and the 
Mincio, I. 494 ; II. 80-2 ; his unhappy experience of old men guilty of 
unnatural offences, I. 505 ; his denunciation of students at Bologna for 
similar offences, while he was lecturing on the Commedia in 1375, and the 
odium he incurred thereby, I. 523-4 ; his account of the village wrestlers, 
1- 535 > his friend who meant to call his daughter Lucretia and called her 
Alegricia, I. 539-40 ; his experience as a traveller on horseback on a 
restive animal, and through a country harried by the enemy, I. 585-6 ; his 
mention of the stone bridges over the Arno at Florence, the Tiber at Rome, 
and the Rhone at Avignon, II. 4; his account of the crowds at Rome 
during the Jubilee of 1350, II. 6 ; his description of the Salse at Bologna, 
and the common taunt about it among the boys of Bologna, II. 11 ; his 
account of the beauty of the ladies of the Bolognese house of Caccianemici, 

II. 12; his eulogy of Bologna and reprobation of the spendthrift and 
immoral habits of the Bolognese, II. 15 ; his ten years' residence in 
Bologna, II. 16; his comparison of the Florentine Baptistery to that at 
Parma, II. 35 ; the misfortunes of a famous astrologer of his acquaintance, 
II. 65 ; his experience of the obstinacy and mendacity of astrologers, 
II. 69 ; his account of the ancient remains at Luni, II. 76 ; and at Sirmio, 


II. 8 1 ; his description of long-haired Greeks, II. 87 ; his acquaintance 
with the magical books of Michael Scot and Guido Bonatti, II. 88, 90 ; his 
disbelief in the magical powers of Virgil, II. 89; his experience of the 
demoralizing effect of the Papal Court, II. 96 ; and of the venality of the 
treasurer of Urban V. at Avignon, II. 118 ; and of many corrupt officials 
whom he could name if he chose, II. 122 ; the vicar of Urban V.'s legate 
in Bologna an instance, II. 137 ; the merciless extortions of such people, 
which he himself has known of, II. 139 ; his witness of a woman escaping 
from a fire, II. 162 ; his mention of the water mills on the Po, II. 164 ; 
his account of the hypocritical preacher, who by his maudlin tears, stimu- 
lated by Malmsey wine, extracted large sums from his congregation, where- 
with he subsequently purchased a fat bishopric, II. 1 66 ; his researches as 
to the history of the Frati Gaudenti, II. 174-5 » n * s information as to 
certain thieving guilds composed of men of good position, II. 260; his 
account of the extravagance of the French mode of dress, and lament that 
French fashions were followed in Italy, II. 409-10 ; the Paduan who ran 
amuck and killed his wife and children, II. 418 ; his selection of Dante as 
an example to follow, III. 18 ; his comparison of the Mount of Purgatory to 
the amphitheatre at Verona, III. 43 ; his description of the tomb of Virgil, 
and Mt Vesuvius, III. 86-7 ; his experience of the road along the Genoese 
Riviera, III. 95 ; his account of San Leo, III. 117; his denunciation of 
gambling and ignorance of games of chance, III. 167; his experience as 
a traveller, III. 201 (cf. I. 585-6) ; his testimony to the loss of caste by a 
woman who marries a second time, III. 232 ; his report of criticisms passed 
upon Giotto's paintings, III. 313 ; his description of the Campo at Siena, 

III. 320 ; his confession that he, like Dante, had been guilty of pride, but 
not of envy, III. 370 ; the account given him by a Sienese Dantist of the 
meaning of the word ammiragli^ III. 371 ; a reminiscence of his lectures on 
Dante at Bologna, III. 411 ; his experience while crossing the Apennines 
between Bologna and Florence, when he was caught in a fog, III. 453 ; 
his account of the three churches dedicated to San Zeno in Verona, 

III. 490 ; his disbelief in geomancy and astrology, III. 498 ; refers to his 
commentary upon Valerius Maximus, IV. 35 (cf. V. 107) ; a cure for wine- 
drinking in the case of a bishop he had known, IV. 70 ; the triumphal 
entry of Cardinals into Bologna witnessed by him, IV. 305 ; his experience 
of the difficulty of the Divina Commedia while lecturing on it at Bologna, 

IV. 335-6; his ridicule of the theologian who publicly denounced Dante 
for his ignorance of theology, IV. 339 ; his story of the unhappy end of a 
beautiful youth of his acquaintance, IV. 365 ; his denunciation of the 
ignorance of a rival commentator upon Valerius Maximus, V. 107 (cf. IV. 


35) ; his description of the neglected state of the church of Santo Stefano 
at Florence, which he observed while attending Boccaccio's lectures on the 
Commedia, V. 145 ; stories of the eccentric lady Cianghella told him by 
his father, who had been a neighbour of hers at Imola, V. 151 ; his account 
of the ancient ruins at Orange in Provence, V. 214 ; the immense sums 
received by ecclesiastics for the absolution of the excommunicate, of which 
in one case in Romagna he had personal knowledge, V. 227 ; his experience 
of friendly disputations, V. 266 ; the cardinal of his acquaintance who 
took his concubine on the crupper of his horse when he went out hunting, 
V. 289 ; his testimony to the saintly lives led by certain communities of 
Benedictine monks, especially at Monte Oliveto, V. 301 ; his description 
of the boat's crew which stopped rowing instantly as one man on hearing 
the commander's whistle, V. 369. 


Accius, 1 the tragic poet (Lucilius Accius, circ. B.C 170-100), III. 197 2 ; IV. 36.* 

1 Accius U mentioned frequently by Macrobius (e.g. Sat. VI. 1. f§ 55-59). as well as by Cicero 
and Horace (I. Sat. X. 53 ; II. Epist. I. 56; III. 258), whence no doubt 6envenuto f s acquaintance 
with him.—* Benvenuto here, following Petrarch (Rem. utr. Fori. II. 125), makes Accius a native of 
Pisaurum (Pesaro), doubtless by a confusion with T. Accius, the Roman knight, mentioned by Gcero 
{Brut. % 78) as *T. Accius Pisaurensis.' — • • Actius.' Benvenuto*s authority here was Macrobius 
(Sat. VI.). 

Actius. [Accius.] 

Aegidius Romanus, Egidio Colonna, author of the De Regiminc Principum 
(circ. 1245-1316), I. 342. 1 

1 A reference to Egidio's Italian commentary on Guido Cavalcanti's famous cansone ' Donna mi 
prega, perch* lo voglio dire.' 

Aelius Lampridius, 1 one of the six 'Scriptores Historiae Augustae,' II. 153, 2 
2i 7 ,« 238,* (239),* 4 *8.« 

1 Supposed to be identical with Aelius Spartianus, the writer's full name being probably Aelius 
Lampridius Spartianus. — * Vita AUxandrt Severi, §§ 26, 36. — * Op. cit. ( 17. — * Op. cit. $ 28.— 
* Op. cit. § 17; the same anecdote as before, but without mention of Aelius Lampridius. — * From 
the V'ita Hadriani (§ 4) ; Benvenuto here gives Aelius Lampridius as the author of this life, else- 
where (III. 62 ; as well as in his Romuleott, Lib. X. Cap. 1-4) he calls the author Aelius Spartianus. 
thus confirming the conjecture that the two are in reality one and the same person. 

Aelius Spartianus, 1 one of the six 'Scriptores Historiae Augustae/ I. 2S9 2 ; 
III. 62.« 

1 Aelius Spartianus is supposed to be identical with Aelius Lampridius, the full name of the writer 
being probably Aelius Lampridius Spartianus [Aelius LampridiusJ. — * Benvenuto is mistaken in 
ascribing to Aelius Spartianus a life of the Emperor Valerianus, whose life was written by Trebellius 
Pollio. The incident here referred to by Benvenuto, however, does not occur in the life (which is 
very fragmentary) as it has come down to us, but it is mentioned by Boccaccio in his De Cottons 
Virorum lllustrium (Lib. VIII. De Valeriano) % and by Benvenuto again in his Libellus Augustalis, 
and in his Romuleon (X. 28, where lulius Capitolinus is wrongly given as the authority). It is 
possible, therefore, that in the Middle Ages a more complete version of the life of Valerianus in the 
4 Scriptores Historiae Augustae ' was current than the one we now possess. The incident in ques- 
tion, it may be noted, is mentioned both by Orosius (Hist. adv. Paramos, VII. 22. % 4) and by 
Paulus Diaconus (Hist. Rom., IX. $ 7). (See Attututum, March 31, 1900, p. 401.)—* Hadrian's 
letter here referred to does not occur in the life by Aelius Spartianus, as Benvenuto asserts, but in 
the life of Saturninus by Flavius Vopiscus (§ 8). 

Aeschylus, Greek tragic poet (b.c. 525-456), IV. 37. 1 

1 Aeschylus, and the other Greek poets here named, are all mentioned by Macrobius in the 
Saturnalia (e.g. V. 19. f$ 17, 24; 20. % 16; 22. % 12). Boccaccio mentions him, together with 
Sophocles, Euripides, and Simonides, in his Comento (II. 427); he is also mentioned (as'*' Eschylus 
Pythagoreus poeta'), in connection with his Prometheus ; in the De Geneaiogia Deorum (IV. 44) 
Petrarch does not appear to speak of Aeschylus. 



Aesopus, Aesop the fabulist (circ. B.C. 570), II. 29, 156-7, 1 556; his Fables (I. in) 3 
(grasshopper and ant) ; (I. 225)* (dog and shadow) ; II. 29 « (young man and 
harlot), 156-7' (mouse and frog), 556* (bat and eagle); (III. 104) 7 (lion and 
mule) ; (IV. 41 1) 8 (wolf and lamb). 
1 ' Aesopus antiquus poeta asianus, qui egregie finxit fibulas multas ad informationem vitae 
civilis, et graece scripsit magnum opus ex quo defloratus fuit iste parvus libellus quo latini 
utuntur.' — * Cf. Hervieux, Fabulistes Latins, II. 151, ajs, etc.—* Hervieux, II. 133, 160, etc.— 
4 'Sic reste dicebat Thais act juvenem de quo scribit Aesopus'; the reference U to the fable com- 
monly known as 'Meretrix et Juvenis,' but called 'Thais et Damasius' in the collection of 
Gualterius Anglicus (Hervieux, II. 341), and not elsewhere. — * Apparently after the version of 
Gualterius Anglicus (Hervicux, If. 317). — • Henrieux, II. 215, 240, 338, etc. — T Hervieux, II. 
272 (* De Vulpe et de Mulo'). — • Benvenuto gives * Aristoteles Secundo Rhetoricorum ' as the 
source of this fable. 

Alanua, Alain de Lille (Alanus de Insulis), author of the Anti-Claudianus and 
De Planctu Naturae (early Cent. XII.), I. 177. 1 

1 Benvenuto here mentions that some mss. read A lane for Lino in In/erne IV. 141 ; he credits 
Alain with a commentary on the Rhetor ica Nova (i.e. the De Invent tone Rhetor tea) of Cicero. 

Albertus Magnus, Albert of Cologne, styled ' Doctor Universalis' (1193-1280), 

1. 178. 383, 474, 566, 582; II. 71, 206, 209, 212-13, 2"5»23i; HI. 93, 161, 162, 

406; IV. 70, 102, 176, 199, 278, 312, 322, 344 ; V. 122 ; his Liber Methaurorum 

(i.e. De Met for is), I. 383, 474; III. 161 ; (IV. 199) ; V. 122; his De Animalibus, 

I. 566 (Aftim. XXII. 1); (II. 131)1 (Anim. XXIII.); (II. 150)2 (Anim. 

XXIII.); (II. 205-7)* (Anim. XXV. 1); (II. 212)* (Anim. XXIII. 24); II. 

215 (Anim. XXII. 1); II. 231 (Anim. XXV. 1); (II. 242)* (Anim. XXV. 

I); (II. 254)« (Anim. XXVI.); (II. 269)' (Anim. XXVI.); (II. 399)* 

(Anim. XXVI.); (II. 555)* (Anim. XXIII.); (111.232)" (Anim. XXVI.) ; 

(IV. 122) » (Anim. XXVI.); IV. 344 (Anim. XXIV.); his Libellus de Poten- 

tia Da em on is, III. 162; his De Proprietatibus Etementorum, III. 406; his 

De Attima, IV. 102; his Liber Mitieralium, IV. 27S ; his De Coelo et Muttdo, 


1 Most of Benvenuto's information about animals, birds, etc., is derived from the De Animations 

of Albertus Magnus, generally without acknowledgment, whole passages being often ' conveyed ' 

verbatim, without a hint of the source from which they were taken. Here he borrows from 

Albertus on the dolphin.— * On the duck.—* On serpents.— 4 On the phoenix.— » On the lizard 

(• stellio*).— - On the snail.— * On the fly. — «On the ant. — • On the bat.— "On the viper.— 

"On the ant. 

Albumasar, 1 Arabian astronomer (Jafar ibn Muhammad Al Balkhi, Abu Mashar, 
A.D. 805-685), I. 264*; III. 147; IV. 349«; V. 217; his/ntroduetorium. III. 

M7. 4 
1 Albumasar is quoted by Dante (Conv. II. 14, 11. 170-4), not, however, directly, but at second- 
hand from the De Meteor is (1. 4. § 9) of Albertus Magnus. — * ' Aemulus Ptolomaei.' — * This refer* 
ence is borrowed from the commentary of Jacopo della Lana (Vol. III. p. 37). — * The full title of 
the work is Introductortum in Astronomiam. 

Aicabitius, 1 Arabian astronomer (Abd al Aziz ibn Uthman, Al-Kabisi) .(fl. circ. 
95°). IV- 349*; V. 217.* 
1 An astronomical work of Alchabitius was translated into Latin in Cent. XII. by Gerardus 
Cremonensis, and in Cent. XIII. by Johannes Hispalensis (the translator of Alfraganus) under the 


title of Liber isagoficus de planetarum conjunetwnibus (printed at Bologna in 1473, and three timet 
reprinted in Cent. XV.). — * The name has been misread or misprinted as Altabieius. The reference 
here is borrowed from the 'Ottimo Comento' (VoL III, p. 41) or from the commentary of Jacopo 
della Lana of Bologna (Vol. Ill, p. 37), by whom Alchabitius is frequently quoted under the name 
of Alcabixio or Alcabiz (e.g. II. 365 ; III. 8, 37, a8o, 316, 319). — ' ' Alchabitus.' 

Alcaeus, Greek lyric poet (fl. circ. B.C. 600), IV. 37 > 

1 Alcaeus and the other Greek poets here named are all mentioned by Macrobius in the Saturnalia 
(e.g. V. 20. §12). 

Alchabitus. [Alcabitius.] 

Alcuinus, Alcuin (circ. 735-804), Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastical writer, and in- 
structor of Charlemagne, V. 213. 1 
1 ' Nutritor Caroli Magni.' 

Alexander, Alexander Aphrodisiensis (i.e. of Aphrodisias in Caria), celebrated com- 
mentator on Aristotle (fl. circ. a.d. 200), IV. 102. 

Algazel, Moslem theologian, usually described as Arabian philosopher (Muham- 
mad ibn Muhammad, Zain Al-Din Abu Hamid, Al-Ghazzali, 1058-1111), IV. 
1 ' Imitator Avicennae.' For ' Algazelem * here the editors read ' Algagelem.* 

AlUbicius. [Alcabitius.] 

Ambrosius, St. Ambrose, father of the Church (a.d. 334-397). I- 207 ; III. 78, 220, 
222, 273, 291 ; IV. 14; V. 43, 44-5, 227; his Exameron % I. 207 ; his hymn 
«Te lucis ante terminum, 1 III. 220; the hymn *Te Deum laudamus,' 1 III. 273. 
1 The authorship of this hymn is mistakenly attributed to St. Ambrose. 
Anaxagoras, Greek philosopher (B.C. 500-428), III. 172 1 ; IV. 306; V. 107. 

1 The story here told comes from Valerius Maximus (Mew. V. 10. Ext. 3). 

Anaximander, Greek philosopher (circ. B.C. 610-547), V. 107. 
Anaximenes, Greek philosopher (fl. circ. B.C. 544), V. 107. 

Apuleius, 1 author of the Asinus Aureus (Lucius Apuleius, born circ. A.D. 114), 
I. 170 2 ; III. 3S0 8 ; IV. 62.» 
1 Benvenuto appears to have possessed a ms. of Apuleius (now in the Vatican library), and to 
have annotated it. Nolhac in La Bibliotheque de Fulvic Orsiui(p. 193) says : ' Le celebre commenta* 
teur de Dante a Bologne, Benvenuto Kambaldi, d' Imola, a u rait, suivant Orsioi, annotl un Apulee 
complet du XI Ve siecle, le 33S4 <M.L. 102 >. Outre les marges qui contiennent des scholies et 
des lecons, les gardes ont des notes de deux mains distinctes; Tune d'elles serait celle de Benvenuto, 
d'apres une tradition, qu'il ne m'a pas Ite* possible de contrdler.' Petrarch also possessed and 
annotated a ms. of Apuleius (see Nolhac, PHrarque et V humanism*, pp. 296-7). — » A reference, 
apparently, to the De dvgmate Platonis. — * References to the Asinus Aureus. 

Arator, Christian poet (d. 556), III. 145, 417 1 ; I v - 230, 307. 2 

1 In these two passages Benvenuto quotes lines from Arator's poems. — * Benvenuto in these two 
passages evidently had in mind what Boccaccio says in the De Genealogia Deorum (XIV. aa). 

Archita, Archytas, philosopher and mathematician of Tarentum (fl. circ. B.C. 
400), III. 197, 1 426.* 

1 Cf. Cicero, De Senectute, § is; Valerius Maximus, Mem. IV. 1. Ext. 1; VIII. 7. Ext. 3.— 
* Valerius Maximus, Mem. IV. 1. Ext*. 2. 

14 INDEX OF AUTHORS QUOTED aristophanes 

Aristophanes, Greek comic poet (circ. B.C. 444-380); 'antiquos comicus,' IV. 37 > 

1 Aristophanes and the other Greek poets here named are all mentioned by Macrobius in the 
Saturnalia (e.g. V. 18. % 5 ; 20. % 13). Benvenuto's description of him as ' antiqnus comicus ' is evi- 
dently borrowed from Macrobius, who speaks of him as 'vetus comicus* (V. 18. % 5). Neither 
Petrarch nor Boccaccio appears to have known anything of Aristophanes. 

Aristoteles, Aristotle, Greek philosopher (b.c. 384-322), I. 7, 8, 10, 23, 26, 27, 34, 
39. 53» !<*, *59. 170. 171. 186, 261, 281, 293, 374, 375, 406; III. 4, 61,75,77, 
91. 92. 93» 190. 197. 276, 3". 3 2 3» 405, 434. 481, 485. 500, 539 ; IV. 14, 17, 36, 
57, 102, 103, 1 17, 275, 296, 307, 322, 324, 338, 342, 346, 357, 382, 391, 395, 396, 
41 1, 415, 499 ; V. 28, 29, 40, 52, 80, 99, 104, 133, 188,266, 277, 374, 376, 398, 409, 
435. 43 6 » 459» 468, 492. 520; • Philosophus,' I. 1, 9, 22, 23, 25, 26, 38, 49 (n.), 50, 
84, 9 1 * IO, » I0 5» I2 6, 154. 162, 171. I73» 218, 245, 252,261,262,268,311, 373, 
379» 487» 5 8 2; II. 156, 163, 192, 402, 432, 463 ; III. 1, 19, 30, 75, 84, 89, 120, 
132. I37» M2, 147. 153. 161, 190, 243, 278, 279, 307, 308, 420, 427, 436, 437. 
440, 464, 481 ; IV. 28, 68, 200, 295, 306, 339, 474; V. 52, 104, 107, 122, 155, 
167, 172, 187, 374, 377. 400, 426, 466, 494, 507, 510; his DeAnima, I. 27 ; De 
Animalibus} IV. 104; De Bona Fortuna? I. 91, 261 ; De Causis,* V. 375 ; 
De Coelo et Mundo* IV. 322, 3S2 ; V. 104 ; De Generatione, I. 171 ; De Gene- 
ration A nimalium, IV. 296 ; De Generations et Corrufttone, V. 28 ; De 
Intellectu, IV. 103 ; De Natura A nimalium, V. 468 ; Ethica, I. 22, 34, 49 (n.) f 
50, 84, 170, 218, 252, 268, 373, 379; III. 120, 132, 276, 279, 323, 481 ; IV. 69, 
391 ; V. 52, 80, 99, 147. 266, 374, 375* 377. 39&. 5 10 J Libri Morales, II. 156; 
Libri Naturales? V. 107 ; Magna Mora/ia, V. 510 ; Mctaphysica, IV. 398 ; V. 
375; Methaura, II. 192 ; III. 147, 161 ; IV. 295; V. 122, 409; PAysica, I. 
171, 262, 377, 391 ; II. 403 ; V. 107, 400, 427. 466, 493, 494 ; Poetria % I. I, 7, 
8, 9, 106, 293 ; III. 1, 4 ; IV. 275, 307 ; V. 459 ; Politico, I. 23, 105, 173, 186, 
4S7; n.433,463; 1 1 1. 30, 75, 1 37, 190,437,440, 539; IV. 117,474; Posteriora 
(Analytica), IV. 346; Priora (Analytica), V. 104; Problemata, III. 61, 75, 
77, 84, 405, 500; V. 277 ; Rhetorica, I. 25, 26, 39, 173, 245; III. 190, 307, 30$, 
420, 427 ; IV. 17, 411 ; V. 510; Secreta Sccretorum,* V. 18S. 

1 Benvenuto here quotes the sixteenth book of the De Animations. The quotation comes actually 
from the second book of the De Generations A nimalium. On the composition of the collection of 
Aristotelian books quoted by medixval writers under the title De Animations, see my note in 
Giornale Storico delta Letteratura Itatiana (Vol. XXXIV. p. 273). — » The so-called Aristotelian 
Libellus de Bona Fortuna, three times quoted by Benvenuto, appears to have been an extract from 
the second book of the Magna Aforatia, in which (Cap. 9) all three of Benvenuto's quotations occur. 
I am indebted for the identification of these passages to Prof. J. A- Stewart, of Christ Church, 
Oxford, who, further, point* out that Dante's quotation in the Convivio (IV. 11, 11. 83-5), which Dr. 
Moore failed to identify {Studies, I. 153), and which Mazzucchelli (through a collection of Adagio) 
traces to the De Bona Fortuna, comes from the same source. The De Bona Fortuna was printed 
at Cologne in the same volume with the De Porno et Morte, and other supposititious works of 
Aristotle in Cent. XV. (1475?)— % The De Cans is, which was commonly attributed to Aristotle in 
the Middle Ages, was ascribed by Albertus Magnus to one David the Jew. St. Thomas Aquinas 
identified portions of it as extracts from the Elevatio Theologica of Proclus, upon whose work it 
was probably based (see the article De Causis in my Dante Dictionary).— «That is, the Aristo- 
telian De Coelo. (On the title De Coelo et Mundo, see the article De Coelo in my Dante Dictionary.) 
— • That is, the physical treatises, comprising the Pkysica, De Coelo, De Generation* et Corrup- 
tion*, Mete or a, De Partibus A nimalium, De Anima, Parva sVaturalia, De Incessu A nimalium, 


De Generatione Animalium, and De Animations. — * A treatise, attributed to Aristotle, which was 
very popular in the Middle Ages, and was translated into nearly every European language. (See 
Jourdain, Traductions latinos d*Aristote, p. 185.) 

Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria (circ. 296-373), III. 78. 

Augustinus, St. Augustine (Aurelius Augustinus, 354-430), I. 10, 25, 28, 33, 34, 
36, 4»» 55» °9* 77. 82, 90, 97, 105, 106, 145, 166, 170, 172, 177, 179, 198, 210, 
214, 262, 328, 407, 463 ; II. 251, 399, 467, 473, 484 ; III. 16, 17, 29, 31, 34, 
36, 45» 48, 61, 62, 71, 78, 83, 90, 91, 92, 142, 149, 162, 191, 222, 251, 297, 298, 
300, 301, 303, 328, 339, 340, 380, 395, 398, 414, 415, 435, 436, 485; IV. 3, 15, 
56, 95, 105, 106, 124, 130, 140, 213, 254, 257, 259, 262, 284, 292, 294, 307, 319, 
320* 3 28 » 3 2 9» 33>» 337. 372, 3&7» 402, 413* 426, 446, 464, 468, 471 ; V. 43, 44, 
46, 99. 167, 221, 227, 232, 241,1 321, 374, 375, 377, 384, 392, 394, 419, 487, 
489, 494, 517, 523 ; his De Civitate £>ei t I. 10, 48, 55, 69, 77, 82, 105, 166, 172, 
177, 179, 198, 210, 262, 463; II. 251, 399, 467, 473» 484; HI- 16, 17. 29, 31,* 
34, 36, 48, 61, 142, 222, 251, 328, 340, 395, 414, 415, 435, 436; IV. 95, 213, 
257, 292, 294, 320, 372, 426, 446; V. 44, 232, 321, 375, 394, 489, 517 ; Liber 
Con/essionum, III. 78; IV. 56; De Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, I. 97; {De 
//aeresibus, I. 328); De Doctrina Christiana, IV. 387, 413; Sermones, III. 
45; Contra Faustum? IV. 259; Enchiridion* IV. 329 ; De Fide ad Pctrum* 
IV. 464. 
1 'Augustinus scripsit ultra mille volumina, ita ut aetas hominis non suffidat ad legendum quantum 

scripsit.' — s Theobrotto here is a misreading for CUombroto. — * Contra Faustum Manichaeum 

tibri triginta. — * Enchiridion de Fide, S/e, et Charitate, liber unus. — *De Fide ad Petrum, 

tive de Regula I'erae Fidei, liber unus. 

Aulus Gellius, 1 Latin grammarian, author of the Nodes Atticae (circ. a.d. i i 7-1 So), 

III. 20, 330; IV. 35 ; his liber Nocttum Attiearum, III. 20 (A\A. XIII. 20) ; 

III. 330 (X.A. XX. 7. § 2) ; IV. 35 (X.A. III. 3. §§ 1-14) ; (IV. 261) * (A\A. 

VII. 3); (V. 385) •(*'•*. I-K>. §4)- 

1 Always referred to by Benvenuto as A. Gellius, as he is by Petrarch, except in two instances 

(Fam. III. 18; IV. 15), where the form Aulus Gellius is perhaps due to the editors. From a letter 

of Coluccio Salutati (who writes A gellius) to Benvenuto, written from Florence on May 22, 1375 

(at which time Benvenuto was lecturing on the Dhrina Commedia at Bologna, as we know from his 

own words in the Commentary : ' In MCCCLXXV, dum essem Bononiae, et legerem librum istura,' 

!• 5*3)» we learn that there was a ms. of Aulus Gellius in Bologna in the possession of the heirs of 

Giovanni Calderini : — ' Vale feliz, et petita de Agellio cum presentibus accipe. Attamen quod 

audivi et credo non ignores, totus Agellius Bononie est apud heredes domini Johannis Caldarini. 

Inde querito ut videas et scias an mini fuerint vera suggesta. Et quantus est ille liber rescribito.' 

(Epistolario di Coluccio Salutati, ed. F. Novali, I. 301-4.) This may have been the ms. of which 

Benvenuto made use. — * Regulus and the serpent. — * Cxsar's De Analogia. 

Ausonius, Roman poet (Decimus Magnus Ausonius, fl. circ. a.d. 350), IV. 48 1. 1 

1 Ausonius was born at Bordeaux (Burdigala), hence Benvenuto speaks of him as ' poeta gallicus.' 
His works were known to Petrarch (who possessed a ms. of them) and to Boccaccio (see Nolhac, 
PHrarque et rhumanisme, pp. 170-2). Benvenuto'* reference appears to have been taken from the 
De Genealogia Deorum (IX. 4) of the latter. 


Averroes. [Averrois.] 

Averrois, A verrhoes, Arabian philosopher and commentator on Aristotle (Muham- 
mad ibn Ahmad, Ibn-Roschd, circ. 1120-1200), I. 7, 1 8, 1 10, 1 181, 182; II. 
68* ; III. 91, 93, 1 , 2 311 ; IV. 96, 101, 102, 103, 104, 275, 291 ; V. 40, 436 ; his 
Colligcth* I. 182*; IV. ioi,« 291. 

1 'Averrois commentator.' — ' 'AverroSs.'— * Colligeth % i.e. Kitabal KoUijat t or Universalis de 
Medicina t one of the books prescribed in the medical curriculum at Bologna. (See Rashdall, Uni- 
versities of Europe in the Middle Ages, I. 247-8.) — * ' Liber in medidna qui didtur Colligetk? — 
1 * In secundo Colligeth. 

Avicenna, Arabian philosopher and physician (Husain ibn Abd Allah, Ibn-Sina, 
980-1037), I. 222; II. 206 1 ; III. 91, 131, 232,* 367; IV. 94, 108,318,499; 
V. 351, 521. 

1 From the Liber Canonis (IV. Fen. VI., Tract. III. Cap. 38), at secondhand from Albertus 
Magnus, De Animalibus, XXV. 1. — * From the Liber Canons* (IV. Fen. VI., Tract. III. Cap. 32), 
at secondhand from Albertus Magnus. De Animations, XXVI. 


[Bartholomaeus Anglicus], sometimes also called Bartholomaeus de Glanvilla, 
author of an encyclopaedic work commonly known as De Proprietatibus 
Rcrum 1 (written circ. 1250), which apparently is the work quoted under that 
title by Benvenuto, III. 80.* 

1 Fra Salimbene of Parma in his chronicle, speaking of elephants, says : ' Horum animalium 
naturam et proprietates f rater Bartholomaeus anglicus ex ordine Minorura in libro, quern De Pro- 
prietatibus Rerum fecit, sufficienter cxposuit' (p. 48, ed. 1857). — ' I have not been able to identify 
this reference. 

Beda, the Venerable Bede, Anglo-Saxon historian and theologian (circ. 673-735), 

V. 46. 
Bernard us, St. Bernard of Clair vaux (1091-1153), I. 256; III. 145 1 ; IV. 206; 

V. 51, 290,2 293. 
1 'Devotus Bernardus.' — * ' Beatus Bernardus.* 

Boccaccius, -acius, -atius, Giovanni Boccaccio (131 3-1 375), I. 227; III. 312, 376, 
392; IV. 221; V. 191; 'B. de Certaldo,' I. 35, 79, 124, 339, 461, 509, 514. 
515; III. 169, 171, 265, 341, 389! 536; V. 145, 164, 301 ; 'suavissimus B. de C.,' 
I. 35; • venerabilis praeceptor metis B. de C.,* I. 79; V. 145, 164, 301 ; *vir 
sua vis eloquentiae B. de C.,' I. 124; 'poeta Florentinus B.,' I. 227; III. 312; 
'modernus poeta B. de C.,* I. 509; »vir placidissimus B. de C.,' III. 169; 
'bonus B. de C.,' III. 171 ; • B. de C. placidissimus hominum,' III. 265; 
*B. de C. vir humillimus hominum,' III. 341; «vir famosus B.V III. 376; 
4 B. curiosus inquisitor omnium delectabilium historianim,' III. 392; his anec- 
dote of the Florentine boys and the lonta (leopard), I. 35 ; Petrarca's letter 
to him concerning Dante, I. 79 ; his tale of Abraham the Jew and Giannotto 
di Civigni (Decant. I. 2), I. 95-6; his anecdote of Saladin {Decant. X. 9), 
1. 167-8 ; his story of the groom who loved a queen (Decant. III. 2), I. 210-1 1 ; 

boccaccius BY BENVENUTO DA IMOLA. 17 

testifies to the gluttony of the Florentines, I. 227 ; his tale of Biondello and 
Ciacco {Dec am. IX. 8), I. 284-7; his anecdote of the Florentine boys and the 
statue of Mars, I. 461 ; his account of the rocks of Fiesole (De Montibus, fol. 
413, ed. 1532), I. 509; his tale of Guglielmo Borsiere and Erminio de' Grimaldi 
(Decam. I. 8), I. 546; his account of how Hannibal lost his eye owing to the 
floods of the Arno (De Fluminibus, fol. 443), I. 514; his description of lake 
A vermis, ahd of the casting up of dead fish witnessed by him (De Lacubus, fol. 
438), 1. 1 24 ; his tale of Ghino di Tacco and the Abbot of Clugny (Decant. X. 2), 
III. 169; his story of the fortitude of Marzucco, III. 171; his tale of Ser 
Ciappelletto and the monk (Decani. I. 1), III. 265; V. 262; his account of 
■ Giotti's marvellous talent as an artist (Decani. VI. 5), III. 312; his anecdote of 
Guido Cavalcanti and Betto Brunelleschi (Decani. VI. 9), III. 314; his account 
of the Arno (De Fluminibus, fol. 443), III. 376; his tale of Lizio da Valbona 
and his daughter Caterina (Decani. V. 4), III. 388-9; his tale of Nastagio 
degli Onesti and the daughter of Paolo Traversaro (Decam. V. S), III. 392; 
his account (derived from his father who had been an eye-witness) of the exe- 
cution of the Templars (De Casibus, IX.), III. 536; his account of the siege 
of Jerusalem (De Casibus, VII.), IV. 12-13; his tale of Charles of Anjou and 
the two Neapolitan maidens (Decam. X. 6), IV. 382; his lectures on the D.C. 
in the Church of San Stefano at Florence, V. 145 ; his residence at Certaldo, 
and Latin works, V. 164; his account of his visit to the library at Monte 
Cassino, V. 301-2; the ingratitude of Florence to him, V. 191; his Vita 
di Dank} I. 339, 515; IV. 222; (I. 13 ff., 76, 79; III. 4551 IV - 210-H; V. 
462, 464); his Decamcrone? III. 169 8 ; (I. 95,* 167-8,* 2io,« 2S4, 7 546*; III. 
265,' 312, 10 314, 11 38S-9, 12 392 18 ; IV. 382"; V. 262 1 *); his De Montibus, 
Silvis, Fontibus, etc., I. I2 4 , 1C 514 17 ; V. 164"; (I. 509"; III. 376*; IV. 
4SS 21 ); his De Casibus Virorum Illustrium, III. 341; V. 164; (I. 2S9 22 ; IV. 
1 2-1 32*); his De Gcpiealogiis Deorum, V. 164; (II. 2S6 24 ); his De Mulieribus 
Claris, V. 164; (IV. 32**); his Bucolica, V. \(^:* 
1 Called by Benvenuto 'libellus de vita et moribui Dantis.' — * ' Liber qui didtur Decameron.' — 
» Giorn. X Nov. 2. — * Giorn. I. Nov. 2 (Zanothus). — • Giorn. X. Nov. 9 (Saladinus). — • Giorn. III. 
Nov. 2 (' Quot milia,' etc.). — ' Giorn. IX Nov. 8 (Blondellus). — • Giorn. I. Nov. 8 (Guiglielmus 
Burserius).— • Giorn. I. Nov. 1 (Capellectus de Burgundia). — ,0 Giom. VI. Nov. 5 (Giottus).— 
11 Giorn. VI. Nov. 9 (Guido de Cavalcantibus). — M Giorn. V. Nov. 4 (Liciut de Valbona). — u Giom. 
V. Nov. 8 (Anastasius de HonettU). — M Giom. X. Nov. 6 (Carolus rex Sidliae). — ** Giorn. I. Nov. 1 
(Zapclectus de Burgundia).— 14 From Libtr de Lacubus (fol. 438, ed. 1532); Benvenuto refers to 
the Liber de Fluminibux. — " From De Fluminibus (fol. 443), quoted by Benvenuto at Liber de 
Montibus et Fluminibus.— " ' Liber de Fluminibus? here, as elsewhere (I. 124), used to indicate 
Boccaccio's collection of geographical books, commonly known as ' Liber de Montibus, Sylvis, 
Fontibus, Lacubus, Fluminibus, Stagnis seu Paludibus, de Nomroibus Maris/ — "(Lapides Faesu- 
larum) De Fluminibus (fol. 4»3)- — " (Andsa) De Fluminibus (fol. 443). — n (Sorgia) De Flumi- 
nibus (foil. 435-6). — » (Valerianus) De Casibus, VIII. — » (Nero) De Casibus, VII. — * (Homerus 
in Odyssea) De Geneal. Dear., IV. 14; XI. 40. Benvenuto undoubtedly made considerable use of 
this work ; several instance* of his indebtedness are pointed out in the course of the notes to this 
index. — **(Proba)Z?* Mulieribus Claris, XCV. — * Benvenuto, at this reference, gives a list of 
Boccacdo's works ; it is noticeable that only his Latin works are mentioned, there being no hint even 
of his many works in Italian. Elsewhere the Vita di Dante (I. 339, 515; IV. zaa) and Decamerone 
(III. 169) are named. 


Boetius, Roman philosopher (Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boetius, circ. 
a.d. 475-5 2 5)» *• 2 7. 34. «5 6 » >75» l86 » 262 » 20 4» 2 $5, 290, 362, 441; II. 364, 
468, 471; HI- 76, I53» !75. 3"» 43 6 » 437. 5 22 J IV - »5^ 2 3°» 2 §3. 2 94, 3 21 . 
322,336, 373, 389; V. 20, 45, 50, 80, 139; 'Boetius christianissimus,' IV. 389; 
•iste Boetius totum scibile scivit,' V. 45 ; his De Consolation*} 1. 1 56; IV. 283; 
V. 80; De Afusiea, III. 76; IV. 321; De Unilate et Uno? IV. 294; Quomodo 
Trinitas unus Deus* IV. 336; De Regulis Fides'} IV. 373. 

1 Though only named these three times (not in all the mss.) this treatise is repeatedly quoted by 
Benvenuto. — * The authenticity of this treatise is questioned. — 9 Otherwise known as De Sancta 
Trinitate; it is probably not by Boetius, but Petrarch believed in its authenticity (Sen. V. 1).— 
4 Otherwise De Fid* Catholica ; probably not by Boetius. 

Bonatti, Guido. [Guido Bonatti.] 

Brunettus Latinus, Brunetto Latino of Florence, author of the Tresor (circ. 

1210-1294), I. 165, 1 526*; (II. 151)*; IV. 176* (Trisor % pp. 105, 10S); V. 166* 

(Trisor, pp. 89 ff.). 

1 The statement here attributed to Brunetto by Benvenuto, vis. that Lucretia was the daughter or 
wife of Brutus, does not appear in the Trteor. — * An account of the contents of the Trisor. — * An 
account of the various kinds of hawks, taken from the Trhor (I. 149) but without mention of 
Brunetto. — ** Brunettus Latinus qui nescivit philosophiam.' — ''Brunettus Latinus in suo Thesauro.' 


Caesar, Julius. [Julius Caesar.] 

Calcidius, translator and commentator of Plato's Timaeus (Cent. V. a.d.), III. 4, 
72, 75, 92, 395; IV. 106, 322, 332; 'Calcidius commentator super Timaeum 
Platonis,' III. 72; IV. 106, 322; 'Calcidius commentator Platonis,' III. 92. 

Cassiodorus, Roman historian, statesman, and monk (Magnus Aurelius Cassio- 
dorus, circ. 46S-565), IV. 230; V. 471 ; (V. S9). 1 

1 Benvenuto here refers to the life of St. John Chrysostom as given in the ' Historia tripartita.' 
i.e. the Historia tripertita de regimine Ecclesi* primitive of Cassiodorus (X. 4 ff.). 

Cassius, Latin poet (Cassius Parmensis, d. B.C. 30), III. 197. 1 

1 Cf. Horace 1 Epixt. IV. 3; and Petrarch, Rented. Utr. Fort., II. 125. 

CatO, Cato the Censor (Marcus Porcius Cato, B.C. 234-149); his Origincs quoted, 
III. 488.1 

1 Cato'* Orifines, which was intended to be a history of Rome and of the Italian towns, exists 
only in a fragmentary form. 

Catullus, 1 Latin lyric poet (Valerius Catullus, B.C. 87- circ. 54), III. 197 2 ; IV. 36.* 

1 Petrarch appears to have possessed a ms. of Catullus, whom he quotes several times (see 
Nolhac, Pitrarque et rAumanisme, pp. 137 ff.). Boccaccio mentions him in the De Genealogia 
Deorum (XIV. 16).— * Cf. Petrarch, Remed. Utr. Fort., II. 1*5.— » Cf. Macrobius, Sat. VI. 1. 

Cechus de Esculo, Cecco degli Stabili, commonly called Cecco d'Ascoli (d. 1327). 
I. 264 1 

1 Benvenuto here quotes the AcerSa, ' In cio fallasti, fiorentin poeta' (II. 1. 1. 19), where the 
usual reading is 'peccasti.' 

claudianus BY BENVENUTO DA JMOLA. 19 

Celsus, Julius. [Julius Cclsus.] 
Chalcidius. [Calcidius.] 
Chronica Januensium, I. 509; III. 241. 
Chronica Ravennae, I. 509; III. 393. 1 

1 ' liber Chronicae Ravennae, qui dicitur pontifcalis.* 

Chronicae Florentinorum, I. 461, 509, 550. 

Chrysostomus, St. John Chrysostora, Greek father of the Church (circ. 344-407), 

III. 270, 301 ; IV. 45. 

Cicero, Roman orator and philosopher (Marcus Tullius Cicero, B.C. 106-43), I* 5'» 

IH.17,21,33,34,323; IV.496; 'Turnus,' 1.13,29,44,46,52,150,172,225,318, 

3«9» 333. 334. 408, 409; II. 21, 75, 239, 296, 300, 448, 484, 560; III. 4, 5, 18, 

22, 24, 25, 34, 35. 62, 75, 76, 79, 84, 92. 196. 197, 3*8. 409, 4i3» 426, 435, 464 ; 

IV- 35» 36. 76, 187, 217, 296, 297, 303, 306, 320, 322, 359, 372, 389, 409, 413, 

4*5» 43'» 434» 445» 44$, 447. 499; v - 435 > '* ons Romanae eloquentiae,' I. 150; 

* princeps eloquentiae prosaicae,' III. 196; his Pro Archia, I. 13; II. 300; 

III. 5; IV. 1S7 ; De Officii:, I. 29, 46; II. 239; III. 33, 84; IV. 409; Tuscu- 

lanae Quaestiones} I. 150, 172, 408; Tusculanae, I. 333; II. 296; III. 79; 

IV - 35» 3°6; Liber Tusculanus, III. 62, 75, 426, 464; IV. 409; Rhetorica 

Nova, I. 177 ; Phiiippicae, I. 225 ; II. 560; De Divination*, II. 75 ; De Katura 

Deorum, II. 484; IV. 359, 372; De Republica, III. 4; IV. 297; Epistolae 

Quinto fratri, III. 17; De Consi/iis, 2 III. 76; Somnium Scipionis, IV. 322; 

De Orator e, IV. 413; De Laudibus Pompei, 1 IV. 434. 

1 From this work (III. 28) comes (without acknowledgment on Benvenuto's part) the saying of 

Theophrastus about the shortness of human life [Theophrastus]. — * Cicero is known to have written 

a work under the title of ' De meis Consiliis * or ' Meorum Consiliorum Expositio,' of which only a 

few sentences have been preserved. If Benvenuto were here really quoting direct from the 'De 

Consiliis,' it would be a proof that that work of Cicero, or at any rate some portion of it, was still in 

existence towards the end of Cent. XIV., but without some independent evidence it would not be 

safe to assume that the treatise was extant in Benvenuto's day, as he is habitually lax in his references 

(see Athtnemm, April I, 1899, p. 400). — 'That is, the Pro Lege Manilia, which was commonly 

known in the Middle Ages by the title of De Laudibus Magni Pompeii (cf. Petrarch, Epist. Fam. 

XXII. 14. ed. Fracassetti, III. 174 ; and Coluccio Salutati, Epistolario, ed. Novati, I. 332). 

Claudianus, Claudian, Roman poet (Claudius Claudianus, d. circ. 4oS), I. 10, 104; 

III. 100, 197, 207, 222, 522; IV. 166; V. 521; 'florentinus poeta,' * I. 10; 

'poeta pagan us conterraneus Dantis,' 1 III. 222; 'placidus poeta,' IV. 166; 

his Minor? I. 104; IV. 166; V. 521 ; {De Laudibus Stilichonis, III, Praef. 

5-6, I. 10); (De IV Consulatu Honorii, III. 100); (De Bello Gildonico, III. 

207) ; (De Iff Cons. Hon.? III. 222). 
1 In describing Claudian as a Florentine Benvenuto is in agreement with Petrarch (Kent. Vtr. 
Fort., 1 1. 125 ; and Contra Galium ; cf . Nolhac, Pilrarque et V humanism*, p. 167) ; Boccaccio, who 
several times quotes Claudian (e.g. Geneal. Deor. I. 1; IV. 44; XI; Comento, II. 198; cf. Hon is, 
Opere Latin* del Boccaccio, p. 410) ; Filippo Villani, who gives a life of Claudian in his De Civ it at is 
Florentia* Famosis Civibus ; and Coluccio Salutati (Epistolario, ed. Novati, III, 483, 591). The 
mistake arose from the name of Florentinus, to whom the introduction of the second book of the 
De Raptu Proserpina* is addressed. Claudian actually was a native of Alexandria. — * That is, his 
De Raptu Proserpina*, in three books (unfinished). — ' This quotation is at secondhand from St. 
Augustine {De Civ it ate Dei, V. 26); or perhaps from Filippo Villani's life of Claudian. Aeoliis in 
the text is a misreading or misprint for Aeolus. 


Cleantea, Cleanthes, Stoic philosopher (circ. B.C. 300-220), III. 435, 482. 1 

1 In both these passages Benvenuto quotes (or rather misquotes) the line of Cleanthes translated 
by Seneca (E/ist. C VI I ) : ' Ducunt volentem fata, nolentem trahunt' Benvenuto speaks of it (1 1 1 . 
435) as ' illud dictum Cleantis philosophi, quod totiens allegat Seneca ' ; which appears to be merely 
an echo of what Petrarch says in his Epistola ad Senecam, where he speaks of ' ilium Cleantis versi- 
culum, quo in Latinum verso uti soles : Ducunt volentem,' etc. (0>. 706). The line is also quoted 
by St. Augustine {Civ. Dei, V. 8), but without mention of Cleanthes. 

Cornutus, tutor of Persius (L. Annaeus Cornutus, fl. a.d. 50), IV. 36. 1 

1 Benvenuto's information about Cornutus and his relations with Persius was doubtless derived 
from the life of Persius by Probus Valerius (sometimes ascribed to Suetonius). Cornutus is men- 
tioned by Persius himself, Sat. V. 23, 37. 

Curtius, Quintus, 1 Roman hbtorian of Alexander the Great (Quintus Curtius 
Rufus, Cent. I. a.d.), I. 39, 265, 399, 407, 473, 475; III. 329; IV. 301; 
Quintus Curtius qui curiose describit gesta Alexandri Magni, 8 I. 473; his 
De gestis Alexandri* I. 39, 475 (Lib. X. 1); III. 329 (Lib. IV.); IV. 301 « 
(Lib. III. 1). 

1 Quintus Curtius was utilised by Petrarch, by whom he is four times quoted by name (see P. de 
Kolhac, PHrarque et r humanism*, pp. 290-1). — * Benvenuto here remarks that the story of the 
rain of fire which fell upon Alexander and his host in India, to which Dante refers {Inf. XIV. 31-6), 
is not to be found in Quintus Curtius or in any other writer on Alexander. I have shown elsewhere 
that the source of Dante's information was a passage in the De Meteoris of Albertus Magnus (see 
my Dante Dictionary, s. v. Aless&ndro '). — » In ten books, of which the first two have been lost. — 
4 Benvenuto here refers to Book II., one of the lost books; his quotation actually comes from the 
beginning of Book III. 

Cyprianus, St. Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage (Thasius Caecilius Cyprianus, circ. 
200-258), III. 301. 

Damascenus, John of Damascus, Greek father of the Church (Johannes Dam as - 
cenus, circ. 6S0-756), V. 106. 

Dares Phrygius, supposed author of an alleged contemporary account of the 
Trojan war, V. 52 1. 1 

1 A Latin translation of this alleged work (Daretis Phrygii de Excidie Trey at H titer id) was one 
of the chief sources of the Troy stories of the Middle Ages. Petrarch appears to have had no doubt 
as to the genuineness of this work (see Nolhac, Pitraroue et V humanism*, pp. 250, 357). 

De Proprietatibus Rerum. [Bartholomaeus Anglicus.] 

Demosthenes, 1 Greek orator (circ. B.C. 385-322), I. 191 2 ; II. 27-8.* 

* Benvenuto had, of course, no direct knowledge of Demosthenes.—* Anecdote about Demos- 
thenes and the harlot, from Aulus Gellius (I. 8. $$ 5, 6); or Macrobius (Sat. II. 2. § it); the name of 
the harlot is given by them as Lais, but Benvenuto calls her Thais, and tells the anecdote a propos 
of Dante's mention of the latter (Inf. XVIII. 133). — * The same anecdote, here wrongly attributed 
to Valerius Maximus. On the relative merits of Demosthenes and Cicero as orators, here referred 
to, cf. Petrarch, Rer. Mem. I. 'Demosthenes,' and Trianf. delta Fama, III. 22; Boccaccio, De 
Casibus Vtrorum lUustrium, VI. ' De M. T. Cicerone'; and Coluctio Salutati, Epixtolarw (ed. 
Novati), I.338. 

egysippUs BY BENVENUTO DA I MO LA. 21 

Dictys Crctensis, supposed author of an alleged contemporary account of the 
Trojan war, 1 IV. 408. 2 

1 A Latin translation of this alleged work (Dirty s Crettnsis de BeUo Trojano) was one of the 
chief sources of the Troy stories of the Middle Ages. — * ' Dites Cretensis.' Benvenuto here refers 
to the claim of Dictys that he took part in the Trojan war (Bell. Troj. I. 13). What follows is 
summarised from Bell. Trey. 1. 19-33. Both Petrarch (Sen. VIII. 2) and Boccaccio (Geneal. Deer. 
1 1. 26, 45; V. 36, 37, 38, 39, 40) believed in the genuineness of this work, of which Petrarch possessed 
a ms. (See Nolhac, Pitrargue et r humanism*, pp. 228, 250; Hortis, O/ere Latin* del Boccaccio t 
P- 43*) 

Dinus Florentinus, Dino del Garbo, Florentine physician (d. 1327), I. 342. 1 

1 A reference to Dino's Latin commentary on Guido Cavalcanti's famous canzone, ' Donna mi 
prega, perclrto voglio dire.' This commentary was printed at Venice in 1498 under the title Enar- 
raiio cantionis Guidon is de Cavalcantibus, de naturd. et motu amor is. 

Dionysius Areopagita, Dionysius the Areopagite, supposed first Bishop of Athens 
(d. circ. 95), V. 437.1 

1 His alleged letter to Polycarp. Dionysius was universally in the Middle Ages believed to be 
the author of the De Car lest i Nierarchia, and other mystic works. 

Dioscorides, Greek physician (Cent. I. a.d.), I. 566 *; III. 204; IV. S9. 2 

1 a. Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Natural*, XIX. 28-32. — * Cf. Spec. Nat. IX. 34. 

Dites Cretensis. [Dictys Cretensis.] 

Donatus, grammarian and rhetorician (Aelius Donatus, circ. a.d. 350), III. 197. 
Donatua, grammarian * (Tiberius Claudius Donatus, circ. a.d. 400), I. 43 ; (his 
Vita Virgilii* quoted, I. 43, 45; III. 196; IV. 36, 96, 208). 
1 Not to be confounded with the celebrated grammarian and rhetorician, Aelius Donatus, the 
author of the famous Latin grammar. — * The Vita Virgitii is not quoted by name by Benvenuto, 
but he was indebted to it for most of his facts about the life of Virgil. It was known to (under that 
title) and utilised by Petrarch (Nolhac, op. cit., p. 106, n. 6, 7). 

Dyascorides. [Dioscorides.] 

Eginardus, Eginhard or Einhard (circ. 770-840), the biographer of Charlemagne, 
IV. 451.1 

1 An account of Charlemagne'* defeat of Desiderius, King of the Lombards, from the Vita Caroli 

Egisippus, 1 Hegesippus, alleged author of a history of the wars of the Jews 
(circ. a.d. 370), II. 182; III. 54 2 ; IV. 14. 

1 Hegesippus is credited with a work compiled from Josephus and other sources, which exists in 
a Latin translation attributed to St. Ambrose. This work was printed at Paris in 1510 with the title 
Historia de Bellojudaico, Sce/tri suola4ione t Judaeon»m dispersion*, et H ierosolymitano excidio. 
— * Egisippus in libro de captiviute Judaeorum.' 

Bgysippue. [Egisippus.] 


Ennius, 1 Roman poet (Quintus Ennius, B.C. 239-169), I. 18, 47; III. 5, 197 s ; 
IV. 3 6,«306> 

1 Benvenuto's acquaintance with Ennius was doubtless derived from Cicero, Ovid, Valerius Maxi- 
mus, Aulus Gellius, and Macrobius. There is no reason to suppose that he had knowledge of any- 
thing more than the fragments which have come down to us.— * Benvenuto here makes Ennius a 
native of Tarentum ; Boccaccio (Comenio, II. 427) speaks of him as * Ennio Brundistno'; he was 
actually born at Rudiae near Brandusium.— * Benvenuto's authority here was Macrobius (Sat. VI.). 

— * The anecdotes of Sdpio Africanus and Ennius are from Valerius Mazimus (VIII. 14. § 1). Cf. 
Cicero, Pro Arckia, % 9. 

Euclidea, Euclid, Greek mathematician 1 (fl. circ. B.C. 300), V. 104. 

1 The geometry of Euclid was chiefly known in the Middle Ages through the commentary of 
Boethius. Boccaccio says of him : ' Appare per Valerio Massimo nel suo ottavo libro, capitolo duo- 
decimo, Euclide essere stato contemporaneo di Platone. E perdocche insino ne* nostri di e perse- 
verau la fama sua, puote assai esser manifesto, lui avere in geometria ogni altro filosofo trapassato. 
Esso adunque compose il libro delle Teoremate in geometria, il quale ancora consiste : sopra le quali 
fu da Boesio ottimamente scritto' (Comento, I. 404). 

Euripides, 1 Greek tragic poet (b.c. 480-406), I. 18; III. 519; IV. 37,2 93, 109; 
'clarissimus poeta tragicus,' IV. 37. 

1 Benvenuto's knowledge of Euripides seems for the most part to have been derived from Aristotle 
and Macrobius, whom he quotes as his authorities (IV. 37 ; cf. I V. 93), and from Valerius Maximus- 

— 'The story of the death of Euripides is from Valerius Maximus (Mem. IX. 12, Ext. 4); the 
account of his tragedy on Meleager is from Macrobius (V. 18. $ 16). 

Eusebiua, ecclesiastical writer, Bishop of Cxsarea (circ. a.d. 260-340) ; his Liber 
Temporum^ III. 38 ; IV. 35. 

1 The Chronicle of Eusebius, as translated and enlarged by St. Jerome, was one of the chief text- 
books on chronology in the Middle Ages. It was very largely utilised by Boccaccio in his Latin 
works, and afterwards in his Comento (I. 120, 215, a86, 300, 327, 328, 331, 332, 346, 361, 386, 387, 394, 
420, 438. 456; II. 48, 137. «66). 

Eustatius, 1 commentator on Aristotle's Ethics, V. 147. 

1 Petrarch possessed a ms. of Aristotle, containing ' Eustachii metropolitan! Xichee enarratio in 
priorem Aristotelis moralium ad Xichomacum.' This ' Eustachius' is doubtless identical with the 
' Kustatius'of Benvenuto, who may have been the Archbishop of Thessalonica (1160-1198). Boc- 
caccio also mentions (Getual. Dear. VII. 41) a Eustachius who was perhaps the same person. 
(See Hortis, Opere Latin* del Boccaccio, p. 385; Kolhac, Pitrargue et rkmmanisme, p. 337.) 

Floras, Roman historian (Julius Floras, circ. a.d. 90-140), II. 143, 336 * (Epit. 

I. 22. § 12), 479 (Epit. I. 22. § 58); III. 73 (Epit. I. 1. § 4), 94 (Epit. I. 20. 

§ 4). 243, 272 ; IV. 440, 442 (Epit. II. 13. § 50), 447, 449 (Epit. II. 14. § 5). 

1 • Floras bre viator Livii,' the title of Floras' work being Epiioma* de TiU Livio Bellorum 
Omnium Annorttm DCC Libri Duo. 

Fronto, 'the Orator* (Marcus Cornelius Fronto, fl. circ. a.d. 140), III. 196. 1 

1 Benvenuto's mention of Fronto is taken direct from Macrobius, Sat. V. 1. % 7 (cf. Aulus Gellius. 
Soct. Att. XIX. 8). 

gregorius BY BENVENUTO DA IMOLA. 23 

Fulgentius, 1 Latin grammarian, author of Mythologiarum Libri tres (Fabius 
Planciades Fulgentius, circ. a.d. 480-550), I. 385; II. 471; III. 6; his Liber 
Mythologiarum, III. 6. 

1 Fulgentius, who in the early editions of his works is described as ' Episcopus Carthaginiensis,' 
and by Boccaccio as ' dottore e pontcfice cattolico ' (Com. I. 131), is frequently quoted by the latter, 
both in his De Genealogia Deorum (see Hortis, Opere Latin* del Boccaccio, pp. 461-3) and in his 
ComemU (ed.MiUncsi, I. .94, 131, 204-7; 1 1- 86» »79i *°°» *o°)- 

Furius, Roman poet (Aulus Furius Antias, fl. circ. B.C. 100), 1 IV. 36.* 

1 Not to be confounded with the satirist, Marcus Furius Bibaculus, who is ridiculed by Horace 
(2 Sat. V. 41). — » Cf. Macrobius, Sal. VI. 1. §§ 31, 32, 33, 34, 44; 3. $ 5; 4. $ 10. 


Galenus, Galen (Claudius Galenus, a.d. 130-circ 200), celebrated physician of 
Pergamum. III. 480 1 ; IV. 329*; V. n,» 50, 4 521. 6 
1 ' Gallienus.' — * ' Galienus.' — * ' Galenus.' — * ' Galienus * ; his commentary on the Aphorisms 
of Hippocrates. — • ' Galienus.' 

Galienus, the Roman emperor Gallienus (253-268), III. io. 1 

1 Benvenuto here quotes the lines written by Gallienus from the Vita Ga/lieni (11. § 8) by Trebel- 
lius Pollio in the ' Scriptores Historiae Augustae.' For ' he, agite, o pueri' Benvenuto reads • he 
simul pueri.' 

Galienus. [Galenus.] 

Gallicus ille qui describit Alezandreidam metrice. Gautier de Lille or de 

Chitillon (commonly known as Gualtherus de Castellione, end of Cent. XII.), 

author of the Alexandras (an epic poem in Latin hexameters on Alexander 

the Great, based upon the history of Quintus Curtius), I. 473; (I. 249). 1 

1 Benvenuto here quotes the famous line ' Inddit in Scillam cupiens vitare Caribdim * from the 

Alexandre is, but without mention of the poem. 

Gallienus. [Galenus.] 

Gallus, Latin poet (Caius Cornelius Callus, circ. B.C. 66-26), III. 197 1 ; IV. 306. 
1 Cf. Petrarch, Kerned. Utr. Fort. II. 125. 

Genus de Aretio, Geri d'Arezzo, a satirist (apparently contemporary with Ben- 
venuto), IV. 62. 1 
1 I have been unable to identify the writer here referred to. According to Benvenuto he wrote a 
satire on the women of Tuscany, after the manner of Apuleius : ' Quid mu lie rum tuscarum mores 
referam, de quibus Gerius de Aretio satyram fecit ad imitationem Apuleii ? ' 

Gotifredus Viterbiensis, Goffredo da Viterbo, chronicles (Cent. XII.); his Pan- 
theon} III. 154. 

1 The title of Goffredo's chronicle, which comprises the history of the world from the Creation 
down to the year 1186. (See Tiraboschi, Stor. Lett. Itat. IV. 469 ff., ed. 1823) 

Gregorius, Gregory the Great (circ. 540-604), III. 44. 78, 83, 175, 301, 490, 498, 
514; IV. 62, 194; V. 297, 392; his Liber Dialogorum} III. 44, 490 ; V. 297. 
1 Dialogorum libri ouatuor de vita et miraculis patrum ftalicomm, et de aeternitaU animae. 


Gualterius Anglicus, Walter of England, i.e. Walter Map (fl. circ. 1200), the 
reputed author of the Lancelot du Lac, Morte Darthur, etc, II. 497. 1 

1 ' Gualterius anglicus in sua chronica quae britannica vocatur, in qua admiscet mulu falsa veris in 
ezalutionem suae region is.' Benvenuto here epitomises the chief events of the life of King Arthur 
from the Morte Darthur. 

Guglielmua Durante*, more commonly Wilhelmus Durandus, canonist (1237- 
1296); his Speculum Juris \ II. 329. 1 

1 • Guglielmus Durantes de Provinda, qui fuit magnus jurisperitus. Fedt enim librum qui iotitu- 
latur Speculum in jure civili, unde a juristis vocatur Speculator.' Durandus was Bishop of Mende 
in Languedoc (1286). His Speculum is mentioned by Dante {Epist. VIII. 7). 

Guido Bonatti, soothsayer and astrologer of Forll (fl. circ. 1270), III. 247. 1 
»Cf. II. 89-91. 


Haly, Arabian commentator on the astronomer Ptolemy (Ali ibn Rudhwan ibn 
Ali Ibn Jafar, fl. circ. 1030), I. 263 *; IV. 470. 

1 ' Commentator Ptolomaei.* Haly is quoted by Boccaccio in the De Genealogia Deorum (IX. 4) 
and in the Comento (I. 481) as having written a commentary on the Quadripartitum (i.e. the De 
Judiciis Astrorum) of Ptolemy (' A philosopho quodam, cui nomen fuit Hali, in commento Quadri- 
partiti dictum est • ; ' Ali nel comento del Quadripartito '). Haly also was the author of a Centilo- 
cuium, which was printed in the 1484 (Venice, Ratdolt) edition of Ptolemy's Quadripartitum et 

Hegesippus. [Egisippus.] 

Helynandus Gallicus, Helinand, French poet and chronicler (d. circ. 1229), 
III. 285. 

Hermes, i.e. Hermes Trismegistus, reputed author of several works now attributed 
to the neo-Platonists, IV. 31s. 1 

1 Benvenuto is here perhaps quoting from St. Augustine (Civ. Dei, VIII. aj). Boccaccio in his 
De Genealofia Deorum (III. so; V. 31 ; VII. 34) quotes Hermes through the medium of the Latin 
translation (attributed to Apuleius) of the Her metis Trismegisti AtcUpius sive de Natura Deorum 
Dialogus. (See Hortis, Opere Latine del Boccaccio, p. 456.) 

Herodotus, Greek historian (born B.C. 484) ; « magnus magister graecae historiae,' 

1 Benvenuto here refers to the well-known story of Arion and the dolphin, which is told in the 
first book of Herodotus. (Cf. Cicero, Tusc. II. 37; Pliny, Hist. Nat. IX. 8; Hyginus, Fab. 194; 
Isidore, Orig. XII. 6; Solinus, Collect. 7. §6; Albertus Magnus, De Animal. XXIV; Brunetto 
Latino, Trlsor % I. 135; Vincent of Beauvais, Spec. Nat. XVII. 112; Bartolomxus Anglicus, De 
Propriet. Rerum, XIII. *6.) Benvenuto got the reference to Herodotus either from Petrarch. 
Kerned, utr. Fort. 1 . 23, or from Aulus Gellius (XVI. 19), who was Petrarch's authority. Boccaccio 
does not appear anywhere to mention Herodotus. Petrarch includes him among the historians 
(' Herodoto di greca istoria padre ') in his Trion/o eUlla Fama (III. 55). Of course neither he 
nor Benvenuto had any direct knowledge of Herodotus. (Cf. Nolhac, Pitraroue et rAumauixme, 
pp. 3«8-i9) 

homerus BY BENVENUTO DA I MO LA. 25 

Hieronymus, St. Jerome, father of the Church (Eusebius Hieronymus, circ. 
346-420), I. 34, 56, 84, 90, 178, 179, 214, 220, 333, 374, 533; III. 91, 300, 
329; IV. 14,89, 124, 193, 217, 229, 259, 284, 406; V. 51, 90, 107, 290, 293, 
298, 305, 429, 430; 'locorum orientalium sedulus indagator,* 1 V. 305; his 
Proemium supra Bibliam, I. 56; Proemium super Genesim, I. 844 Liber 
Virorum Illustrium, 2 I. 179; Contra /ovinia num, I. 199.333,374; IV. 259; 
in principio libri Regum? IV. 193; in epistola ad Titum % V. 430. 

1 An allusion to his translation of the work of Eusebius on the sites and names of Hebrew places. 
— * The passage here referred to (as to the inclusion of Seneca by St. Jerome in his catalogue of 
famous Christians) is quoted in extenso by Boccaccio in his Comento (I. 403, ed. Milanesi). For the 
medixval belief on the subject, see Graf, Roma u*l Medioevo, II. 284-93.—* His preface to the 
Books of Kings, commonly known as the Prologus Galea t us. (See Bib/ia Sacra Vulgate Edition is 
Sixti V. P.M.j'ussu recog., pp. xliii-iv, xlviii, ed. Paris, 1889.) 

Hippocras. [Hippocrates.] 

Hippocrates, Greek physician (circ. B.C. 460-357), V. 50, 521 ; l * doctissimus 
medicorum,' V. 50. 
1 ' Hippocras.' 

Homerus, Homer, I. 16, 18, 26, 34, 48, 51, 77. 87. 88, 124, 130, 150, 151, 159, 202, 
203, 249, 295, 307, 321, 362, 581 ; II. 64, 70, 72, 77. 87. 8S, 279, 2S0, 282, 285, 
286, 287, 288, 290, 300, 365, 447, 448, 467, 46S, 482, 518 ; III. 3S, 128, 196, 225, 
259. 33°> 339. 35^. 419. 460, 471. 5 01 ; IV - "4i 17. 20, 32, 36, 37, 162, 306, 336, 
364; V. 72, 133, 160, 1 354; 'poeta Graecus excellentissimus,* I. 150; <poeta 
magnus,' I. 362 ; ' summus poeta,' 1. 58 1 ; * fons ingeniorum/ IV. 36 ; the Iliad, 
quoted, I lias Homeric V. 354 ; libro suae Iliados, I. 26; in sua Iliade, III. 259; 
in Iliade, III. 339; Yliadam, in quo describit bella Trojana et gesta A chill is, 
I. 151 ; in principio fliados,' I. 77; primo Ilyados, II. 88; secundo Ilyados, 
II.87; IV. Iliados, II. 2S2; V. Iliados, II. 2S0; XXIII. Iliados} III. 259; 
the Odyssey, quoted, Odyssea Homeri, IV. 17; per totam Odysseam, II. 290 ; 
in Odyssea, II. 279, 286, 2S8; IV. 162; Odisseam, in quo tractat de peregri- 
natione Ulyxis, I. 151; in principio Odysscae, I. 77; XI. Odysseae, 4 I. 124, 
159; II. 70, 72, 77, 280, 448, 4^7. 482; III. 38, 128, 330, 356, 460, 501; 
IV. 364. 
1 Benvenuto here refers to the Homeric phrase {rea xrcpoerra, • winged words.' — * The open- 
ing line of the I Had is quoted in a metrical version : ' I ram pande mini Dea ' ; this recalls the opening 
line of the hexameter epitome commonly known as Pindaru* Tkebanus de Bella Trojano, in which 
form alone Homer was accessible in the Middle Ages till the middle of Cent. XIV. The line there 
runs : ' lram pande mihi Pelidae diva super hi.' In the prose version of Leontius Pilatus, made at 
Florence, at Petrarch's expense, under the roof of Boccaccio, the line is rendered: ' lram cane dea 
Pellidis Achillis Pestiferam.' (See Hortis, Study sulle Opere Latine del Boccaccio, p. 543.) — » This 
reference, which should be to Iliad XXIV., not XXIII., comes from Boccaccio, Comento, 1.46a. 
Benvenuto declines as follows, nom. llias (V. 354) ; gen. 1 1 Lidos (I. 26, 77; II. 87, 88, 280, 282); 
ace. fliadam (I. 151); lliadem (I. 459, v.I. fliada); abl. Iliad* (III. 259, 339>- Petrarch uses ace. 
lliadem and gen. lliados, but lliadis occurs constantly in his ms. copied from the version of Leon- 
tius Pilatus, which was sent to him by Boccaccio for the purpose. (See Nolhac, Petrarque et V huma- 
nism*, pp. 346 ff.) — « Of the Odyssey, except in four instances (see below), Benvenuto quotes Bk. XI. 
only (sixteen times). This Book, of course, contains the account of Ulysses' visit to Hades, which 


Benvenuto constantly compares with that of Aeneas dec ri bed in Aeneid VI. It was precisely this 
episode which, at Petrarch's request (' partem illam Odysseae qua Ulixes it ad inferos et locorum 
quae in vestibulo Erebi sunt descriptionem ab Homero factarn .... quam primum potes . . . 
utcunque tuis digitis exaratam 0, Boccaccio extracted from the translation of Leontius PUatus, and 
sent separately to his friend (Nolhac, pp. 343-$). It is quite possible that this extract was subse- 
quently placed at Benvenuto's disposal by Petrarch, who took a great interest in the progress of the 
Commentary, as we know from a fragment of a letter written to him by Benrenuto in the spring of 
1374 (' Scias me anno praeterito extremam manum commentariis meis, quae olim tanto opere efflagi- 
tasti, in Dantem praeceptorem meum imposuisse % An extract from the Latin prose translation 
used by Benvenuto is given (from Odyssey XI.) in the comment on Purg. IV. 61 (III. 128). The 
instances in which Benvenuto quotes otherwise than from Bk. XI. are as follows : (i) The rendering 
of Bk. I. 1 ('Die mini, Musa, virum') is quoted from the Ars Poet tea (141) of Horace (I. 77). 
Petrarch, oddly enough, thought that Horace's lines were from a lost translation of Homer by Cicero : 
' . . . translationem illam veterem Ciceronis opus, quantum intelligere est, cujus prindpium Arti 
Poeticae Flaccus inseruit, latinitati perditam ' (Var. 25). (Nolhac, p. 153.) (u) The account of Circe 
(II. 286-7) from Odyssey X. is borrowed from the De Genealogia Deorum (IV. 14) of Boccaccio. 
From the same source come the accounts (iii) of the shipwreck of Ulysses in the Straits of Messina 
(II. 288) from Odyssey XII. {Gen. Deor. XI. 40); and (iv) of the wallet of winds given to Ulysses by 
Aeolus (IV. 162) from Odyssey X. (Gen. Deor. XIII. 20). (See my article in appendix on Benve- 
nuto da Jmola and the Iliad and Odyssey, reprinted from Rotnania, XXIX, 403-415.) 

Horatius, Horace 1 (Quintus Horatius Flaccus, B.C. 65-8), I. 9, 17, 18, 78, 79, 149, 
l S l * '53» >5 6 » *73> 26S. 334. 335» 43°. 453; u - 49» 354. 4S9; III. 75» >97. 3 02 « 
3S0. 439; IV - 37. 23°. 3 d6 . 3 2§ ; v - ! 33» 3 8z » 3 8 4; * Horatius Flaccus,' IV. 
306; 'maximus moralis/ I, 151, 334; his Liber Odarum* I. 149 (1 Carm. 
III. 8); Epistolae, I. 17; quoted, I. 17 (1 Epist. XVI. 52-3) 1 ; I. 26S (1 Epist. 
II. 62); I. 334 (1 Epist. IV. 16); II. 354 (1 Epist. II. 54); III. 362 (1 Epist. 
II. 58-9); III. 380-1 (1 Epist. II. 26); IV. 37 (2 Epist. I. 116); Poetria* I. 
9» 79. 4531 II- 489; V. 133, 384; quoted, I. 9 (A. P. 333-4, 343); I. 77 (A. P. 
141); I. 79 M- p - 3S-9); I. »73 M- P- 464-5); I- 335 (*- ^-335); I- 43° 
(A. P. iff.); I.453 (*./> 162); ll. A9 (A.P.2 S ); II. 4S9 {A. P. 394); HI. 
439 (A. P. 160); IV. 32S (A. P. 92); V. 133 (A. P. 12S); V. 384 (A. P. 70); 
Satirae, quoted, III. 75 (1 Sat. III. 1-2). 

1 Petrarch possessed a complete ms. of Horace, which he purchased at Geneva in 1347 (Nolhac, 
p. 150). — * This quotation occurs in the Con/essiones (IV. 6) of St. Augustine, but without mention 
of Horace. — * For 'Tu nihil admittis notae formidine poenae' in the second line Benvenuto reads 
1 Oderunt peccare mali formidine poenae/ in which form the line is quoted in the Moral turn Dogma 
(Cap. XLIV.) of Guillaume de Conches. — 4 The Ars Poet tea was usually known by this title in the 
Middle Ages. Cf. Dante, V. N. § 25, 1. 02 : Conv. II. 14, 1. 88; V.E. II. 4, 1. 35. 

Horosius. [Orosius.] 

Hugo de Sancto Victore, Hugh of St. Victor, mystic and theologian (circ. 1097- 
1 141), I. 8; V. 46, 88; his Dida seal icon, I. 8. 

Hyginus. [Iginus.] 


Iginus, Julius, C. Julius Hyginus (fl. a.d. Cent. I), III. 522 l ; his De Vita et 
Moribus Virorum Illustrium? III. 522. 

1 Printed in the text, by a misreading, Julius Junius. — * This quotation is taken direct, without 
acknowledgment, from the Policraiicus (V. 7) of John of Salisbury [Johannes Anglicut], who in 


his turn borrowed it, also without acknowledgment, from Aulus Gellius (I. 14). Petrarch quotes a 
work of Hyginus, De Urbibux Italic is, which is mentioned by Macrobius {Sat. V. 18) and by Ser- 
vius (on A en e id, I. 281, 534; III. 553; VII. 47, 412, 678; VIII. 597, 638), whence his references 
(Contra Galium, Op. 1083 ; Var. XXXIX, ed. Fracasetti) were doubtless taken. Both these works 
of Hyginus are now lost. 

Isaac, Arabian philosopher, IV. 10S. 1 

1 This Isaac Is doubtless identical with the Isaac (Ishak ibn Sulaiman, al Israili) who was author 
of the De Definitionibus and De Diactis, and who is frequently quoted by Vincent of Beauvais in 
his Speculum, and by Bartholomaeus Anglicus in his De Rerum Profrutatibus. (Cf. Jourdain, 
Traduction* laiines d'Aristote, pp. 85-6, 122.) A Latin translation of his works (doubtless that by 
Gherardo da Cremona, made in Cent. XII) mas printed at Lyons in 15 15. 

Isidores, St. Isidore of Seville (Isidoms Hispalensis, circ. 560-636), I. 19, 153, 
566; III. 350; IV. 321 ; V. 46, 341 ; (his Origines, 1 I. 153, 566; IV. 321). 
1 Not quoted by name. 


Jeronimus. [Hieronymus.] 

Johannes Anglicus, John of Salisbury (d. 11S0), II. 410; * Policratus 1 Anglicus,' 

I.83; III. 2S5; IV. 446; • Policratus,' * I. 179; HI. 523; IV. 429; V. 245; 

his Policraticus? I. 83 (Pol. V. 7); I. 179 (Pol. VIII. 13); II. 410 (Pol. VI. 

17); III. 285 (Pol. V. 8); III. 523 (Pol. V. 4); IV. 429 (Pol. VI. 17); IV. 

446 (Pol. V. 8) ; V. 245 (Pol. V. 7) ; (III. 522, Pol. V. 7 ).« 
1 So the text, in every instance, for Policraticus.—* Always Policratus in text.— 8 Benvenuto's 
quotation from the lost De Vita et Moribus V'irorum lllustrium of- Julius Hyginus comes from this 
source [Iginus]. — He was probably also indebted to the Policraticus (II. 6) for his account of the 
woman Maria who devoured her own son during the siege of Jerusalem (IV. 51); and for his knowl- 
edge of the Institutio Trajani attributed to Plutarch [Plutarcbus) I am indebted to Mr. Clement 
C. J. Webb, of Magdalen College, Oxford, for the identification of several of Benvenuto's references 
to John of Salisbury. 

Johannes Messanensis, 1 John of Messina, V. 51. 

1 1 have not succeeded in identifying this writer. 

Josephus, Jewish historian (Flavius Josephus, a.d. 37-circ 100), II. 182, 323 
(Bell.Jud. II. 18. § 10; III. 9. § 2) ; III. 62 (Ant. Jud. III. 1 1. §§ 3-4), 64 » 
(Antjud. II. 15. § 2), 73 (Ant. Jud. III. 12. § 3), 282 (Ant. Jud. VII. 2. § 2), 
328 (Ant. Jud. III. 14. § 2 ; V. 2. § 3), 330 (Ant. Jud. VI. 4. § 6), 333 (Ant. Jud. 
VIII. 8. § 1), 335 (Ant. Jud. X. 1. § 5), 450 (Ant. Jud. I. 19. §8), 456 s (Ant. 
Jud. XI. 6. § 1), 539-40 (Ant. Jud. V. 1. §§ 1-12), 543 (Ant. Jud. XIV. 7. § 1 ; 
Bell.Jud. I. 8. § 8) ; IV. 14, 16 (Bell.Jud. VII. 4. § 2). 44 (Ant. Jud. X. 7. § 1 ; 
X. 10. § 1), 51 (Bell.Jud. VI. 3. § 4). 53. 8 5-6 (Ant. Jud. V. 6. §§ 2-5), 123 » 
(Bell.Jud. IV. 8. § 4), 181 (Ant. Jud. I. 2. § 2), 305 (Bell.Jud. VII. 5. §§ 4-6), 
307, 408 (Ant. Jud. V. 7. § 10), 417, 423. 
1 Benvenuto erroneously refers to the third book, and says ' luna quartadecima * instead of 'luna 

quintadecima.' — * ' Assuerus,' called 'Anaxerxes' by Josephus. — •• Pentapolis,' called 'terra 

Sodomitica ' by Josephus. 

28 INDEX OF AUTHORS QUOTED julius caesar 

Julius Caesar, 1 the dictator (Caius Julius Caesar, B.C. 100-44), H- 3 l 7>' 2 326,* 391, 
467*; V. 385* 

1 As to the opinion of Benvenuto and other mediaeval writers regarding the authorship of the 
Commentaries, see Julias Celsus, note 1. — » ' Ut scribit Julius Caesar/ — * From Suetonius (Vit. 1. 
% 77)* — 4 There is a variant Julius Celsus. — * ' Unde Caesar in analogia : insolens, etc.* Benvenuto 
here quotes from Caesar's lost work, De Analogia, which is mentioned by Quintilian (I. 7. { 34) 
and Suetonius (Vit. I. % 56), and several times quoted by Aulus Gellius (tfoel. Atl. I. 10. § 4; IX. 
M> % a$» XIX. 8. ft 3-8). Benvenuto's quotation is evidently taken from Aulus Gellius : ' A C. 
Caesare ... in primo de analogia libro scriptum est, habe semper in memoria atque in pectore ut 
tanquam scopulum, sic fugias inauditum atque insolens verburo v (I. 10. f 4). 

Julius Celsus, 1 editor of Caesar's Commentaries (Cent. VII. A.a), I. 1C2, 417, 
579; II. 257, 373, 391, 462; III. 18, 31,* in, 272, 487; IV. 379, 435.* 4 

1 Julius Celsus was a scholar at Constantinople in the seventh century, who made a recension of 
the text of Caesar's Commentaries. In the Middle Ages (and by some even in modern times) he 
was regarded as the author of the Commentaries, which he was supposed to have compiled from 
material supplied to htm by Caesar himself, whose companion in arms he was believed to have been. 
Vincent of Beauvais (in the Speculum /fistoriale), Petrarch fin the De Viris Illustrious, ed. Rai- 
solini, II. 30, 237), Boccaccio (in the De Genea/ogia Deorum, VII. 36), and Benvenuto, all quote 
the Commentaries under the name of Julius Celsus. (See Hortis, O/ere Latine del Boccaccio, p. 414 ; 
Nolhac, Pitraroue et I humanism*, pp. 247 n., 249.) Oddly enough, until the beginning of this cen- 
tury, the life of Julius Caesar included by Petrarch in his De I 'iris Illustrious was regarded as the 
work of Julius Celsus, and has frequently been printed with the editions of Caesar's Commentaries 
under the title oljulii Celsi Commenlarii de Vita Caesar is. — * ' Julius Celsus sodus Julii Caesaris, 
qui rebus istis praesens fuit.' Cf. IV. 435. * Bellum Gallicum de quo Julius Celsus miles et sodus 
Caesaris, qui omnibus tnterfuit, feat satis magnum volumen'; and Petrarch: 'Julius Celsus, 
Caesaris comes et qui rebus interfuit* (Kir. lllus. ed. Razzolini, II. 237). — ' See note 2. 

Justinianus, Justinian the Great (Emp. a.d. 527-565), III. 443; IV. 415. 

Justinus, 1 Roman historian, author of Historiarum Philippicarum Libri XLIV % 
an abridgment of the Historiae Fhilippicae of Trogus Pompeius, which has 
been lost (circ. A.D. 200), I. 34, 195, 407, 40S, 420, 473, 559; II. 22, 547 ; III. 
62, 192, 413; IV. 163, 170, 298, 308, 429, 4S0; V. 16, 147, 191; 'Justinus 
breviator Trogi,' I. 195; IV. 298 ; 'Justinus breviator Trogi Pompeii/ III. 
62; his history quoted, I. 34 (Hist. V. 2. § 6); I. 195-6 (Hist. I. 2. §§ 1-10); 
I. 407 (Hist. IX. 8. § 15); I. 408 (Hist. XX. 1. § 1-2. § 2; 5. § 10); I. 420 
(Hist. XVIII. 1. §§ 1-3; XXIII. 3. §§ 1-12; XXV. 3. §§ 1-10; 5. §§ 1-2); 
I. 559 (Hist. XLIV. 4. §§ 14-16); II. 22 (Hist. XLII. 3. §§ 1-2); II. 547 
(Hist. XX. 1. § 11); III. 62 (Hist. XXXVI. 1. §§ n-13); HI. 4,3 (Hist. II. 
8. §§6-10); IV. 163 (Hist. IV. 2. §2)2; IV. i 7 o (Hist. II. 13. §10); IV. 
208-9 (Hist. XXIV. 6. §§6-9); IV. 308 (Hist. XXIV. 6. §10); IV. 429 
(Hist. XXV. 5. §§ 3-6) ; IV. 480 (Hist. XVIII. 5. §§ 3-4) . V. ,6 (Hist. XLIII. 
4- §§11-12); V. 147 (Hist. I. 3. §§ 1-6); V. 191 (Hist. V. 3. §§4-6); also 
(without mention of Justin), III. 336 (Hist. I. 4. § 10 ; I. 8. §§ 1-13) 8 ; III. 
455 (Hi*. XLII. 5. § i) 4 ; IV. 369 (Hist. II. 4. § 31) .« 

• Petrarch possessed a ms. of Justin, whom he largely utilised (Nolhac, Pitraroue et rhuma- 
Misme, p. 245). — » Benvenuto here misreads Eolus for the Cocalus of the original. — » Cyrus. — 
• Phraates. — • Orithya. 


Juvenalis, 1 Juvenal, Roman poet (Decius Junius Juvenalis, d. circ. a.d. 130), I. 
18,40,41,52,263; II. 261; III. 62, 197,323; IV. 15, 25, 27,480; V.41,60; 
his Satiraey I. 40 (Sat. XIV. 139), 41 {Sat. III. 152-3), 52 (Sat. X. 1 22-6), 
263 (Sat. X. 365-6)2; II. 261 {Sat. VIII. 140-1)*; III. 62 (Sat. XV. I ff.), 
323 (Sat. XV. 144 ff); IV. 15 (Sat. VII. S2-5), 27 (Sat. VII. 86-7), 4S0 (Sat. 
VI. 130)*; V. 60 (Sat. X. 22). 

1 Petrarch possessed a ms. of Juvenal, whom he quotes very frequently, and imitates even in his 
Italian works (Nolhac, op. cit. p. 153). — * Misquoted, for 'nos te Xos facimus.' Benvenuto reads 
' sed te Non facimus/ thus completely altering the sense. — * For ' quanto major qui peccat ' Ben- 
venuto reads 'quanto qui peccat major/ — * For ' Et lassata viris nee dum satiata* Benvenuto (or his 
copyist) reads ' Et lassata quamvis nondum satiata/ 

Juvencus, Christian poet (C. Vettius Aquilinus Juvencus,- fl. Cent. IV.), IV. 230, 1 

3°7- 2 
1 * Juvencius/ — 5 In these two passages Benvenuto evidently had in mind what Boccaccio says 
in the De Genealogia Deorum (XIV. 22). 

Lactantius, Christian apologist (Lucius C. Firmianus Lactantius, fl. circ. 300), 
IV. 3 o 7 .» 
1 The writings of Lactantius were familiar to Petrarch (see Nolhac, Pttrarque et rhumanisme) % 
and to Boccaccio, who quotes him frequently in his Comento (I. 390 fl. ; 1 1. 48, 136, 285), and in his 
De Genealogia Deorum. (See Hortis, Opere Latine del Botcaccio, pp. 47* ff.) 

[Legenda Aurea], the ' Golden Legend ' of Jacobus de Voragine (circ. 1238-1290), 
II. 105.1 

1 Benvenuto here gives the legend of the ' Santo Volto ' of Lucca. ' sicut reperi in quadam scriptura 
apocrypha.' The legend is not included in the ordinary Latin editions of the ' Golden Legend/ but 
it is given at the end of the Italian translation, in the Venice edition of 1586, where it is said to lave 
been written by one ' Lebonio Diacono.' 

Liber de Proprietatibus Rerum, 1 II. So. 

1 The best-known work under this title is that of Bartholomaeus Anglicus (circ. 1260), but I have 
not been able to identify the passage referred to by Benvenuto. [Bartholomaeus Anglicus.] 

Livius, 1 Livy, Roman historian (Titus Livius, B.C. 59-A.D. 17), I. 29, 46, 478,479, 
509, 561 ; II. 12S, 2S0, 335, 340; III. S7, 94, 102, 108, 109, 142, 190, 243, 271, 
339. 3 60 ' 39i» 427; IV. 171, 19S, 282, 302, 30S, 393, 424, 425, 42S, 429, 430* 
431. 43=' 44 6 > 489; V. 16, 174; 'Titus Livius/ 1. 48, 67, 80, 162, 165, 452; II. 
S4, 127, 1S3, 22S, 229, 326, 337, 39S, 410,442,462,469,481,492,547; III. 21, 
31, 155» > s 9* »97. 3". 339. 49»: v - 5"» ! 5- "7». l8l » 5°°. 5 2 5; 'princeps 
historicorum/ II. 229; «veritatis custos/ II. 340 ; • Titus Livius paduanus 
nobilissimus historicorum/ III. 155; his (Historiae) liber primus % IV. 424; 
liber primus circa principium, I. 80; in fine primi, IV. 425; liber primus ab 
urbe condita? I. 165; liber primus ab origine urbis, Romulus, condita urbe, 


etc., 2 V. 500; liber secundus, IV. 393, 431 ; liber tertius,\\ '. 430 ; liber quintus, 

IV. 428; /r&r* sextus, scptimus, octavus, IV. 429; </* secundo bello funic o* I. 

561 ; secundum bellum funicum quod Livius eleganter describit in decern libris? 

IV. 432- 
1 Petrarch possessed a ms. of Livy (bought at Avignon in 1351)* who was one of his favourite 
authors, and was largely utilised by him in his poem Africa (Nolhac, op. cit., pp. 48, 132, 22S). — 
* These are evidently copied from the rubrics of mss. — * The third decade, books xxi-xxx. 

Livius, 1 Roman poet (Livius Andronicus, d. circ. B.C. 220), I. 47. 
1 livius Andronicus is several times mentioned and quoted by Aulus GelHus. 

Lucanus, Lucan, 1 Roman poet (M. Annaeus Lucanus, a.d. 39-65), I. 39, 149, 152, 
153, 156, 161, 167, 407, 421, 467, 469, 470, 471, 500, 510, 5S2 ; II. 75, 77, 204, 
206, 207, 245, 246, 371, 372, 373, 432, 495, 561 ; III. 25, 39, 61, 112, 1S2, iSS, 
241, 270, 2S7; IV. 14, 275, 299, 302, 446; V. 16, 51, 60, 61, 66, 145, 157, 21S, 
2S7; 'magis excellens historicus et orator quam poeta,* 2 I. 152-3; his Phar- 
salia, III. 270; quoted, I. 39 (Phars. I. 206); I. 156 (Phars. IX. 9S4) ; I. 407 
(Phars. X. 21); I. 421 (Phars. VI. 422); I. 469 (Phars. IX. 300 ff.) ; I. 470 
(Phars. IX. 5S7 £f.) ; I. 500 (Phars. VI. 272 ff.) ; I. 510 (Phars. II. 424); I. 
5S2 (Phars. II. 415); II. 75 (Phars. I. 5S4 ff.) ; II. 77 (Phars. VI. 507 ff.) ; 
II. 206 (Phars. IX. 712, 719, 721, 822ff.«); II. 207 (Phars. IX. 734 ff.); II. 
245 (Phars. IX. 723 ff.); II. 371 (Phars. I. 2S0-1) ; II. 372 (Phars. IV.« 824); 
"• 373 (Phars. IV. 762 ff., 7S9 ff., 809-10); II. 432 (Phars. IV. 332-6); II. 
495 (Phars. I. S7,* 97); III. 25 (Phars. II. 372-6,388, 390 «) ; III. 39 (Phars. 
II. 327-S); III. 61 (Phars. VIII. 446 7 ); III. I !2 (Phars. VI. S19) ; III. 1 Ss 
(Phars. ); III. iSS (Phars. I. 313) ; III. 241 (Phars. II. 426-7) ; III. 

2S7 (Phars. V. 23S); IV. 14 (Phars. IX. 9S0-1); IV. 275 (Phars. I. 6cS ff.) ; 

IV. 299 (Phars. V. S3); IV. 302 (Phars. III. 207-S) ; IV. 446 (Phars. III. 
10S); V. 16 (Phars. III.* 497 ff-) ; V. 51 (Phars. X. 407); V. 60 (Phars. V* 
527-8); V. 61 (Phars. V. 52S-9); V. 66 (Phars. VII. 819); V. 157 (Phars. 

V. 381 ff.) ; V. 218 (Phars. V. 71 1 ff.) ; V. 2S7 (Phars. II. 306ff.). 

1 Lucan is quoted some forty times by Petrarch (Nolhac, op. cit., p. 160, n. 4). — * This opinion, 
which was a common one in the Middle Ages (cf. Nolhac, p. 161 ; Moore, Studies in Dante, I. 228, 
303-4), was doubtless due to Quintilian's remark ; " Lucanus, ut dicam quod sentio, magis orato- 
ribus, quam poetis adnumerandus * (X. 1). — » The Commentary here reads Aulus ; the right reading 
is Paulus, as is evident from the passage in Lucan, and from the fact that Aulus is mentioned by 
Benvenuto, in his proper connexion, on the next page.—* The Commentary reads infine tertii: 
for 'emere omnes' Benvenuto reads 'emere alii/ — 8 Benvenuto, or his copyist, reads 'nimia cupi- 
dine' for ' nimiaque cupidine.' — * Benvenuto quotes these two lines as if they were consecutive in 
the poem. — 7 For 'contenta bonis* Benvenuto reads ' foecunda bonis.* — • The Commentary reads 
in quarto. — • The Commentary reads in secundo. 

Lucilius, 1 Roman satirist (B.C. 148-103), I. 47. 

* Lucilius is several times mentioned by Petrarch, who, however, does not appear to have had 
any direct knowledge of his writings (Nolhac, op. cit., p. 160, n. 1) ; he is frequently quoted by Aulus 
Gellius iu the Xoctes At tic or. 

martialis BY BENVENUTO DA IMOLA. 31 

Lucretius, 1 Roman poet (T. Lucretius Cams, circ. B.C. 99-55), I.47, 2 156; IV. 36. 
1 Benvenuto, like Petrarch and Boccaccio (Kolhac, op. cit., p. 134), had no direct knowledge of 
the poem of Lucretius, the text of which was not discovered until the next century, when a ms. was 
unearthed from a German monaster)' by Poggio in 14 17. Such knowledge as Benvenuto (as well as 
Petrarch and Boccaccio) had of Lucretius was derived from Aulus Gellius, and from Macrobius, who 
quotes from all six books of the De Rerum Naiura. — * Benvenuto here states that Lucretius died 
by his own hand on the same day that Virgil was born. This statement mas evidently derived from 
a careless reading of what Donatus 'says in his Vita Virgil H: • Quindecimo anno virilem togam 
cepit, illis Consulibus iterum quibus natus erat. Evenitque ut eo ipso die Lucretius poeta disce- 
deret.' That Lucretius died by his own hand Benvenuto learned from the fragmentary life of the 
poet by Suetonius, which was copied by St. Jerome in his additions to the Chronicle of Eusebius. 


Macrobius, 1 Roman grammarian, author of the Saturnalia (Ambrosius Aurelius 
Theodosius Macrobius, fl. circ. a.d. 400), I. 50, 51, 87 (Sat. V. 3. § 16), 115, 
(151), 2 175 (Sat. I. 18. § 22; cf. I. 17. §42; I. 18. §§ 12, 17, 18; I. 23. § 22), 
(191) 2 bis, 221 (Sat. II. S. § 15), 8 262 (Sat. V. 16. § S),* 4S0 (Sat. I. 20. § S), 573 
(Sat. I. 6. §§ 2S, 30); II. 2S4 (Sat. V.); III. 5, 92,* 194 (Scmti. I. 6. § 44), 196 
(Sat. V. 1. §§ 4, 7 « S, 20, 13, 19), 197, 313 (Sat. II. 2. § ic), 3S6 (Sat. VII. 1 1. 
§§ 7, 8), 447 (Sat. II.), 500 (Sat. VII. 6. §§ 1-13), 545 [Sat. I. 17. §§ 53-G); 
* v - 35> 7 3<> (Sat. VI.), 37 (Sat. V. iS. § 16; 21. § 7), 43. (93) (Sat. V. iS. § 16), 
166 (? cf. Sat. I. 12. § 23; 17. § 44 ; iS. § 23),* 294, 297 {Sat. I. iS. § 17), 300 
(Sat. I. 18. §§ 1-24), 322,' 369 (Somn. I. 14. § 26) ; V. 30 (Sat. I. 17 ?), 321, 

377» 384- 
1 Macrobius was a very favourite author in the Middle Ages, both on account of his Commentanus 
in S omnium Scipionis and of his Saturnalia. Of the latter John of Salisbury, who quotes it 
frequently, says 'talis liber [est], si inspiciatur recte, et tantus, ut nihil aliunde oporteat mutuari' 
(Policrat. VIII. 10). Petrarch and Boccaccio were familiar with both works. Boccaccio justifies 
his introduction of Greek quotations into his De Getualogia Deorum (XV. -• on the ground tlut 
Macrobius quotes Greek in the Saturnalia. The reference to Macrobius at the beginning of the 
Roman de la /Cose is well known. Chaucer also several times refers to * Macrobcus, that writ the 
avisioun In Affrike of the worthy Cipioun' (e.g. Cant. Tales, B. 4313; Deihe 0/ Blaunche, 2S4: and 
Pari. Foules, in).— * On Virgil's imitations of Homer (Sat. V). — * M* Anecdote of Demosthenes 
from Sat. II. 2. § 1 1 . — s 1-oosely quoted. — 4 M isquoted ; for soli decreto Benvenuto reads soli dec. — 
r ' ' Macrobius commentator Tullii.* — e The editor of Benvenuto's commentary wrongly reads afud 
Juniun: Maronem f or a/ud unum Maronem. — 7 Benvenuto here states tlut Macrobius frequently 
quotes Caecilius; as a matter of fact he only appears to have quoted him once (Sat. III. 15. §9).— 
• Benvenuto's authority here appears to have been not Macrobius but Boccaccio, De Genealogia 
Deorum (VIII. 4). — • ' Macrobius commentator Tullii super somnium Scipionis.' 

Martialis, Martial, Roman epigrammatic poet (Marcus Valerius Martialis, a.d. 
43-circ. 104), V. 396. 1 
1 Benvenuto, who calls Martial ' Valerius Martialis,' here refers to the obscenity of some of his 
poems. In the Middle Ages, owing probably to a corrupt passage in the life of Alexander Severus 
(Hist. Aug., Cap. 38), in which mention is made of ' Martialis coci Epigramma,* Martial was often 
quoted by the name of Coquus (e.g. by John of Salisbury and Vincent of Beau va is). Both Brunetto 
Latino (Trhor, II. 56), however, and Pietro di Dante (Comentum, p. 568) speak of him as 
'Martialis/ as does Boccaccio (Geneal. Deor. III. 20). Petrarch does not seem to have been 
acquainted with Martial. (See Nolhac, Pitraroue et Vhumanisme, p. 173.) As to the alleged com- 
mentary of Boccaccio on the epigrams, see Hortis, Opere Latine del Boccaccio, pp. 411-12. 


Martianus Capella, 1 author of the De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii (Martianus 
Minneus Felix Capella, fl. circ. a.d. 470), I. 158, 316; IV. 163, 230, 303; V. 
3". 396; 'Martianus,' I. 260, 321 ; II. 204; III. 6 2 ; V. 30; his De Nuptiis > 
I. 260; De Nuptiis Mercurii, I. 316; IV. 303. 

1 Martianus Capella was well known to mediaeval writers ; he is quoted by John of Salisbury in 
the Policraticus, and also by Petrarch, who possessed an incomplete MS. of the De Nuptiis (see 
Xolhac, Pitrarque et Vkumanisme, p. 329), and by Boccaccio in the De Genealcgia Deerum.— 
* Ben v en u to here quotes the commentary on the De Nuptiis written circ. 880 by Remi de St. Germain 
d'Auxerre (Remigius Antissiodorensis). 

Martinus, Martinus Polonus, Archbishop of Gnesen (d. 127S), author of the 
chronicle known as Chronica Mar tin tana, V. 472. 1 

1 Benvenuto says here : ' Palatium Lateranum quod est prope sanctos Marcellinum et Petnim, 
versus septemtrionem, fuit palatium Neronis, ut dicit Martinus*; this is taken direct from the Ottimo 
Comtnto, which says : ' II palagio a Laterano, ch'e appresso Santo Marcellino e Pietro, di verso 
settentrione, fu il palagio di Nerone imperadore ; del quale dice Martino Diacono, cardinale, nella 
sua Cronica, etc.* (II. 6S3). The passage in question occurs in Chap. 6 (De Palatiis) of Bk. I. of 
Martinus* chronicle : ' Palatium Neronis, tateranense, prope sanctum Marcellinum et Petrum. Et 
dictum est Lateranense, a latere Septentrionalis plagae, in quo situm est.* 

Mussatus Padua n us, Albertino Mussato, historian and poet of Padua (1261- 
1330), I. 410 1 ; V.6,*S.« 

1 A reference to Mussato's tragedy Eceiiuus on the subject of Ezzelino d» Romano (cf. Ikxxaccio, 
Comento II. 299) . — * ' Mussatus poeta Paduanus.* — * ' Mussatus poeta.* 

Naevius, ancient Roman poet (Gnaeus Naevius, born circ. B.C. 270), IV. 36. 1 

1 Cf. Macrobius, Sat. VI. 2. 5 31. Naevius is mentioned by Boccaccio in his Comento (II. 427), 
together with Ennius, Plautus. Terence, and Horace. 

Origenes, Origen, doctor of the Church (Origenes Adamantius, 1S5-253), IV. 104, 
337 1 ; V. 396. 
1 A reference to his voluminous writings, which have been estimated at 6000; St. Jerome puts them 
at a third of that number. Cf. Boccaccio (Geneat. Deer. XIV. 22) : • Fuere huic ho mini [Origeni] 
tarn grandes in componendo vires, ut nunquam circa id exhaustum videatur fuisse ingenium, ncc in 
scribendo fatigata manus, ex quo in millia volumina variarum materiarum excessisse credatur.' 

Orosius, Paulus, 1 author of the Historiarum adversum Paganos Libri VII (circ. 
A.D. 400), V. 43, 1S9; •Orosius/ I. 82, 197,389, 392,406; II. 19; III. 62, 222, 
-5 1 ' 272,339; IV. 15, 34, 43, 257,27s, 442, 450; V. 43, 44, 45, 269; 'presbyter 
hispanus, magnus historicus,' V. 44 ; * vir valens et utilis,' V. 45 ; his Ormesta 2 
mundi, I. S2, 392; V. 43; quoted, I. S2 (/////. VI. 22. §§ i-S); I. 197 {Hist. 
I- 4- §§ 7-8); I. 3$9 (#"'• I- 13- § 2) 8 ; I. 392 (Hist. ); I. 406 (Hist. 

III. 7. § 5; III. 18. § 10); II. 19 (Hist. I. 12. § 8); III. 62 (Hist. I. 8. § 1-10. 
§ 7); HI- 222 (Hist. VII. 35. §§ 14-22); III. 251 (Hist. I. 11. § 3); III. 272 
(Hist. VI. 15. § 5) ; III. 339 (Hist. VI. 2. § 1 1) ; IV. 34 (Hist. VII. 10. § 6) ; 

palladius BY BENVENUTO DA JMOLA. 33 

IV. 257 (Hist. VII. 26. § 9; VII. 27. §§ 1-16); IV. 278 (Hist. IV. 15. § 2); 

IV. 442 (Hist. VI. 1 1. § 9)* ; IV. 450 (Hist. ) ; V. 43 (Pro/. §§ 9-10) ; 

V. 1S9 (Hist. VI. 15. § 13) ; V. 269 (Hist. ). 

1 Orosius was largely utilised by Dante, especially in the De Monorchia. (See my article Dante's 
Obligations to Orosius in Romania, XXIV. 385-398.) Petrarch, who was also considerably indebted 
to him, refers to him somewhat contemptuously as ' ille mundi malorum coacervator Orosius* (Fam. 
XV. 9). Boccaccio quotes him frequently in the De Casibus Virorum fllustrium, twice only in the 
De Genealogia Deorum, twice in the De Montibus, etc., and not once in the Comento. (See Hortis, 
Studj suite Opere Laiine del Boccaccio, pp. 475, 519, 520.) — * The exact meaning of this mysterious 
name, by which the work of Orosius was commonly designated in the Middle Ages, has not yet been 
explained. It is usually supposed to have arisen from the abbreviation Or[osii] m[undt] ist[ori\a. 
(See Fabricius, Bibliotheca media* et infimae aetatis, s.v. Orosius.) — * Benvenuto (or his copyist) 
here reads 'inhuman* bestia *; Orosius says: 'Minotauro, utrum fero homini an humanae bestiae 
aptius dicam nescio.' — * Benvenuto applies the passage quoted in the text to Caesar's victory over 
Pompey at Pharsalus; the words of Orosius actually apply to his victor}' over Vercingetorix. 

Orpheus, mythical Greek poet ; his Liber de Saeris Liberalibus} I. 175. 
1 Quoted from Macrobius, Sat. I. iS. § 22. 

Ovidius, Ovid, Roman poet (Publius Ovidius Naso, B.C. 43-A.D. 18), I. S, 35, 
104, 149, 152,156,175, 186, 202, 214, 391, 45-» 4S1, 4S9. 49». 5*7* 5 S, J n - "-» 
245, 246, 247» 248, 290, 396, 41C, 420, 424, 453' 467. 469. 4S3, 55 2 ; HI. 6, 8, 
197. 249. 3'5» 3 2 3> 329. 33°* 33 l > 3 62 » 399. 4°°, 4»5» 425; IV. 50, 54, 76, S4. 
93, 115, 116, 146, 166, 169, iSi, 199, 250, 295. 300, 305, 306, 31C, 320, 365, 
3S2, 409, 490; V. iS, 72, 123, 183, 396; 'Ovidius Naso,' IV. 306; 'magnus 
magister amoris,* I. 214; *optimus m agister transformationum,' II. 248; his 
De Arte Amattdi, I. 35; Metamorfhoseos, I. 5S! ; II. 72, 24 S; III. S; V. 
72, 123, 396; Metamorphoseon, V. 1S3; De transformatis} I. 156; IV. 274; 
Major? I. 104, 175, 391, 491 ; II. 246, 247, 24S, 290, 396, 416, 420, 424, 467 ; 

III. 249. 3'5* 329. 33^ 399. 415 J 1V - 5°. s 4. 93. "5. «^ "^9. 3°°. 3* 6 » 3 6 5» 
490 ; Liber Fastorum % I. 4S1, 4S9; IV. 301, 320 : Liber Efistolarum? V. iS; 
Liber de Ponto, IV. 409. 
1 Another name for the Metamorphoses, which I>ante similarly speaks of as De Reruttt Transmu- 
tat tone (Mon. II. S, 82, S5) and De Rerum Trans/or mat tone (Kpist. IV. «;. — * Also the Meta- 
morphoses, so called as being Ovid's longest |x>em ; Dante speaks of it as Ovidio Maggiore (Conv. 
III. 3, 51) [Claudianus: Statius). — ? Tlut is, the Heroides. 

Pacuvius, Roman tragedian (Marcus Pacuvius, circ. K.c. 220-130), III. 197 >; 
IV. 36.2 

1 Cf. Petrarch, Rented. Vtr. Fort. II. 125. — s Cf. Macrobius, Sat. VI. 1. $36; 5. $ 14. 

Palladius, 1 Latin writer on agriculture, author of the De Re Kustica (Rutilius 
Taurus Aemilianus Palladius, fl. Cent. IV. a. I).), II. 2 Si. 
1 The treatise of Palladius was immensely popular in the Middle Ages; it is first mentioned by 
Isidore of Seville, who refers to the author as 'Aemilianus* (Orig. XVII. 1, 10); it is incorporated 
almost bodily in the Speculum of Vincent of Beauvais, and was very largely utilised by Brunetto 
Latino in his Trteor (I. 126-30), though Palladius is only once mentioned by name (I. 126). Ben- 
venuto (or possibly a glossator) drags in the mention of Palladius ( 4 Fuit etiam Palladius quidam 
autor romanus qui tractavit de agriculture ') a propos of the Palladium of Troy ! 


Patricius, Sanctus, St. Patrick (fl. circ. 440), III. 44. 1 

1 A reference to St. Patrick's Purgatory, which is described in the Legenda A urea of Jacobus de 
Voragine. (See also Wright, 57. Patrick" s Purgatory, pp. 4-5, 133 ff.) 

Paulus Di&conus, author of the Historia Rom ana (a continuation of Eutropius) 
and the Historia Langobardorum (circ. 720-790), I. 41S, 1 464; (IV. 162) 2 
{Hist. Lang. VI. § 49). 

1 Benvenuto here gives the account of Attila ' sicut scribit Paulus Diaconus in suo libro de gestis 
Longobardorura ' ; the account, however, comes not from the history of the Lombards but from the 
Historia Romana (XIV. (§1-13). Villani utilises the same account, without mention of his authority 
(II. 1) : as does Boccaccio in his Comeuto (II. 305 ff.), * secondoche scrive Paolo Diacono nelle sue 
Croniche/ Boccaccio quotes the Historia Langobardorum in his De Genealogia Deorum (XI. 43), 
and De Casibus Virorum lUmtrium (XI). (See Hortis, Ojxre La tine del Boccaccio, p. 485.) — 
* The destruction of Classis by Liutprand. 

Persius, 1 Koman satirist (Aulus Persius Flaccus, a.d. 34-62), I. iS, 24; III. 142, 
1 97 2 ; IV. 36,' 181,240*; V. 51,436; his Prologus, IV. 1S1 (Pro/. 2) ; Satirac, 
I. 24 (Sat. V. 52-3); III. 142 (Sat. I. 27-S)*; V. 51 (Sat. III. 35)*; V. 436 
(Sat. I. 27). 

1 Persius was well-known in the Middle Ages ; he is frequently quoted by John of Salisbury in the 
Policraticus, and by Brunetto Latino (at secondhand;, Petrarch (who possessed a ms.), and Boccac- 
cio. — * Cf. Petrarch, De Remediii utriusque Fortunae, II. 1*5. — * The details of the life of Persius 
here referred to were doubtless derived from the life by Probus Valerius (sometimes ascribed to 
Suetonius). — 4 A reference to Prol. 2. — * Line 2S is misquoted (or misprinted) * dice re hie est * for 
'dicier hie est.— * For ' Magne pater' Benvenuto reads 'Summc parens.' 

Petrarca, -archa, Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374), I. 10, 79. S3, S9, 125, 179, 224, 
227; II. 59, 185, iSf.; III. 6, 86, 145. 225, 312, 326, 376; IV. 76, 134, 230, 
2S4. 309, 379, 4SS, 494; V. 191, 230, 261 ; 'novissimus poeta IV, I. 10, 79, 
125; II. 59, 1S5: III. So, 225; IV. 76, 2S4, 309. 4SS ; V. 230; • P. modern us/ 
I. S3; 'poeta Florentinus IV, I. S9, 227; III. 312; 'modernus poeta IV. I. 
179, 224; 4 P. noster/ III. 145; 'clarissimus poeta P.', III. 376; * vir famosus 
P.', III. 376; 'novissimus IV, V. 261 ; his epistle to Kenvenuto, I. 10; IV. 
230; his epistle to Boccaccio concerning Dante, I. 79; his Apologia contra 
Galium, I. S3; his love for Laura. I. S9: his Itinerarium Syriaeum, I. 125; 
(III. S6-7, 379); his doubts as to Seneca's salvation, I. 179; his temperate 
habits, I. 224; his testimony as to the gluttony of the Florentines, I. 227; 
his sonnet DclV empia Babilonia, II. 59; his story of the two Cardinals at 
Avignon, II. 185-6; his third Ecloga, III. 6; his reply to King Robert of 
Sicily as to the building of the Castello dell' Uovo by Virgil, III. S6; his 
Psalm i PocnitcntiaUs, III. 145; his coronation with the laurel crown, III. 
225; his eulogies of King Robert, III. 225; IV. 494; his praise of Giotto's 
art, III. 312; his reflections upon pride and humility, III. 326; his birth- 
place at Incisa, near Arezzo, III. 376; his references to the Arno, III. yjd\ 
his poetry inspired by love, IV. 76; his adoption of the Sestina from Arnaut 
Daniel, IV. 134; his eulogy of the countess Matilda of Tuscany, IV. 2S4; 
compared with Dante, IV. 309; his high opinion of the House of Swabia, 


IV. 379; his residence on the banks of the Sorgue, IV. 4SS; the ingratitude 
of Florence to him, V. 191 ; his denunciation of the corruption of the Papal 
Court, V. 230; his lines 'Aeternum gemat ille miser,' etc., V. 261. 

Petms Comestor, Chancellor of the University of Paris, author of the Historic 
Scholastica (d. 1179), III. 62. 1 
1 Benvenuto (unless the text is corrupt) refers to the Historia Scholastica as Historia Ecclesi- 
astic a. 

Petrus de Abano, 1 Pietro d' Abano, physician and astrologer of Padua {1250-13 15), 
II. 6S 2 ; III. 43S. 3 
1 According to Tiraboschi (Lett. Ital. V. 2S7, ed. 1S23) Benvenuto's mention of Pietro d'Abano is 
one of the only two references to him which <»ccur in the literature of Cent. XIV. Both Benvenuto's 
references consist of more or less entertaining anecdotes. — 2 * Vir singularis excellentiae.* — ' ' Exi- 
mius philosophus, astrologus, et medicus." 

Petms Lombardus, Peter Lombard, author of the Scntentiarum Libri Quatuor^ 
whence he was commonly known as 4 Magister Sententiarum' (circ. 1100- 
1 164) ; quoted as ' Magister Sententiarum,' I. 113. 

Petrus Ravennas, 1 Peter of Ravenna. V. 52. 

1 Perhaps St. Peter Damian, who was a native of Ravenna (circ. 1000-1072). Benvenuto speaks 
of the Peter in question as ' Conterraneus me us,' which, in the loose sense of 'native of the same 
district,' would hold of St. Peter Damian. Imola being only about twenty miles from Ravenna; but 
if the term is to be taken in the strict sense of ' native of the same city,* of course St. Peter Damian is 
out of the question. 

Philemon, Greek comic poet <fl. circ. i:.c. 330) ; • notissimus comicus,' IV. 37. 1 

1 Benvenuto's description of Philemon as ' notissimus comicus ' was derived from Macrobius (Sat. 
VI. 21. § 7). According to Valerius Maximus (VIII. 12. Ext. §6>. Philemon died of laughing, a story 
to which Petrarch refers in a note on the margin of one of his mss. (See Nolhac, Pitrarque et 
rhumanisme, p. 2<yT-> 

Pindarus, 1 Pindar, Greek lyric poet (circ. h.c. 522-442), III. 197; IV. 37. 306. 

1 Benvenuto may have derived his knowledge of Pindar from Macrobius (Sat. V. 17. §$ 7-i4>; but 
it is not improbable that he is referring to the so-called Pindarus Thebanus, the reputed author of the 
Latin hexameter epitome of Homer which was current in the Middle Ages. [Homerus.] 

Plato, Greek philosopher (circ. n.c. 4^-347), I. 11, 27, 263, 5S1 ; III. 4, 35, 61, 

72, 7S, 79* 3 11 ' 395* 4i6, 426, 434. 4S1, 4S5; IV. 90. 105, 106, 10S, 306, 322, 

33^ 357. 359. 3 S 5» 3 S8 » 3 S 9> 39°. 4-3« 469. 499; y . 99, 133, 342, 436. 494; 

* magnus philosophus et poeta,' I. 10 ; 4 magnus musicus,' III. 78; « vir divini 

ingenii,' III. 79: * magnus metaphysicus etiam poeta,' IV. 390; his Phacdo^ 

I. II ; Timacus} I. 5S1 ; III. 61, 72, 395; IV. 106, 19S, 322, 332, 3SS, 469. 

1 The Timaeus Benvenuto read in the Latin translation of Chalcidius, which he frequently quotes 

as his authority [Chalcidius]. Petrarch possessed a ms. of Chalcidius, as well as a ms. of Plato in 

the original Greek, which, however, he could not read. (' Nee literatus ego, nee Grecus, sedecim vel 

eo amplius Platonis libros domi habeo.' De Jfttorantia.) This is the ms. to which Boccaccio refers 

in his Comento on the Dfc'ina Commcdia : ' Li quali [libri di Platone] non ha molto tempo che io vidi, 

o tutti, o la maggior parte, o almeno i piu notabili, scritti in lettera e grammatica greca in un grandis- 

simo volume, appresso il mio venerabile maestro messer Francesco PeiTatca' (Vol. I. p. 370, e<L 

Milanesi). See P. de Nolhac, Pitrargut et rhumanisme, pp. 43, 323-4, 3*9-34. 


Plautus, 1 Roman comedian (T. Maccius Plautus, circ. B.C. 254-184), 1. 47. 

1 Benvenuto does not appear to have been acquainted with any of the plays of Plautus. Petrarch 
knew the eight plays (Amphitruo, A s inn r in, Aulularia, Captivi, Curculio, Casina, Cittellaria, and 
Epidicui) which were accessible in his day, as well as the spurious Querolus. The complete collection 
was not discovered until Cent. XV. (Kolhac, op. cit., pp. 154, 369.) 

Plinius, 1 Pliny, Roman historian (C. Plinius Secundus, a.d. 23-79), I. 46, 162, 17S, 

313, 564; II. 76, 132. 204. 205, 252, 254, 335, 372, 391, 454, 481 ; III. 22, 87, 

196. 197. 204, 233, 279, 280, 292, 294, 309, 313, 340, 380, 393, 420, 453, 470, 

485, 507, 527, 539, 542; IV. 36, 37, 72, 76, 89, 99, 129, 130, 162, 216, 278, 

2S3, 297, 298, 30S, 312, 325, 423, 434, 439, 449, 472, 489; V. 107; 'Plinius 

Secundus Veronensis/ 2 III. 87; 'Plinius paganus,' III. 292; his Historia 

Katuralis, I. 46, 162 (Lib. VII), 178 (Lib. VII); II. 205; III. 22 (Lib. VII), 

279 (Lib. XXXIII), 292 (Lib. VII), 313, 420 (Lib. VII); IV. 99 (Lib. VII), 

162, 278 (Lib. VII), 297 (Lib. I), 325, 434 (Lib. VII). 

1 Petrarch possessed a ms. of Pliny, which he bought at Mantua in 1350; mss. of Pliny were rare in 

Italy in Cent. XIV. (See Kolhac, Petrarque et Tkumanisme, pp. 47, 270.) Boccaccio frequently 

quotes Pliny in his De Genealogia Deorum ('clams homo et erudites/ VII. 14; 'gravissimus vjr,* 

VII. 10; 'inter scriptores celeberrimus homo,' XII. 25) and Comento (I. 352, 353, 406; II. 1841. 

{See Hortis, Opere Latine del Boccaccio, pp. 433~4-) — * Verona, not Como, was commonly regarded 

in the Middle Ages as the birthplace of Pliny (d. III. 19;); thus Petrarch speaks of him as ' Plinius 

Secundus Veroncnsis * (Ret Mem. I. 2), ' vicinus noster Veronensis • (Rem. I. 64), ' Plinio Veronese' 

(Trio*/, della Fa ma, III. 42), etc. (See Nolhac, */. cit., pp. 269, 271.) 

Plotinus, 1 neo- Platonic philosopher (circ. ad. 203-269), III. 35, 436; V. 436. 

x Benvenuto's knowledge of Plotinus was perhaps derived from St Augustine, who frequently quotes 
him, especially in the De CivitaU Dei. Petrarch, who styles Plotinus ' ingens Platonicus * (Retried. 
1 1. 1 14), several times quotes him. (See Nolhac, Petrarque et r humanisms, p. 331.) 

Plutarcus, Plutarch, Greek historian and moralist (fl. circ. a.d. 80), I. i;S; 

IV. 36 1 ; 'Plutarcus philosophus, magister Trajani imperatoris,' I. 17S 2 ; 

his Parallila or Comparationes, I. 178. 
1 Cf. Petrarch, Fam. XXIV. 5. Nolhac (p. 314) states that Petrarch knew nothing of Plutarch 
save the apocryphal 1 nit it u tic Trajani, but this reference seems undoubtedly to the Parallel Li: es, 
which are quoted by Benvenuto by name (1. 178). — * The notion that Plutarch was tutor of the 
Emperor Trajan is due to an apocryphal letter of Plutarch to Trajan, known also as Institutw Tra- 
jani, which is quoted in the Policraticut (V. 1-2) of John of Salisbury; it is several times quoted by 
Petrarch (Rented. I. 81; Fam. XVIII. 16: XXIV. 5; XXIV. 7). 

Policraticus. [Johannes Anglicus.] 

Pollio, Roman poet, orator, and historian (Caius Asinius Pollio, B.C. 76-A.D. 4), 

IV. 306. 
Pomponius Mela, 1 Roman geographer, author of the De Situ Orbis, otherwise 

known as Chorographia (fl. circ. A.D. 40), I. 196 (Chor. I. 63); II. S} (Chor. 

I. 8S), 1422 (Chor. II. 123), 288 (Chor. I. 27); III. 339; V. 16 (Chor. II. 

77 ft). 
1 Pomponius Mela is frequently quoted by Petrarch (see Nolhac, Pttrarqueet Vhumanitme, p. 301, 
«. 8), and is largely utilized by Boccaccio, especially in his De MontUms, etc. (See Hortis, Opere 
Latine del Boccaccio, pp. 251 ff.; and Accenni a/le Scieme NaturaU nelle Opere del Boccaccio, 
pp. 71 ff.) Boccaccio quotes him several times in his Comento (I. 08, 138, 386; II. 184, 204, 368), 
where he refers to his work under the title Cotmograjia. — * 4 Chalari,' called by Mela • Caralis.* 

quintus curtius BY BENVENUTO DA IMOLA. 37 

Priscianus, Priscian, Latin grammarian, author of the Institutiones Grammatical 
(Priscianus Caesariensis, fl. circ. a.d. 500), I. 522 J ; III. 197; V. 435. 
1 Benvenuto, perhaps by a confusion of Priscian with Priscillian, the heretical Bishop of Avila, 
says of the grammarian, ' monarchus fuit et apostatavit.' 

Proba, Falconia Proba, a Christian poetess of uncertain name, place, and family, 

who is supposed to have lived about the beginning of Cent. V. ; her only 

extant work is the Centones Virgiliani t in which she uses Virgil's words to tell 

the events of the Bible from the Creation to the Ascension, IV. 32. 1 

1 Benvenuto here, following Boccaccio, who in his De Claris Mulieribus devotes a chapter to Proba 

{Cap. 95), credits Proba with the authorship of the Homerocentones, which were in reality the work 

of Eudoxia, wife of the Emperor Theodosius II. 

Pronapides, 1 ancient Greek poet, native of Athens, according to Diodorus Siculus, 
the tutor of Homer; 'magister Homeri,* IV. 306; V. 133. 
1 Benvenuto's acquaintance with Pronapides was no doubt derived from Boccaccio, who mentions 
him four times in his Comeuto sopra la Divina Comincdia (1. 198, 270, 321: II. 177) and frequently 
in his De Genealogia Dcorum. Boccaccio quotes him on the authority of ' Theodontius,' and refers 
to a poem of his entitled Protocosmos. 

Propertius, 1 Latin elegiac poet (Sextus Aurelius Propertius, fl. circ. u.c. 30), 
III. 196,2 197. 

1 Propertius was known to Petrarch, who possessed a ms. (see Nolhac, Petrarque et Pkumn- 
nisme, pp. 75 ff.), and to Boccaccio (Gcneal. Dear. XIV. 16). — 3 The distich here quoted is taken 
from Donatus' Vita Virgilii. 

Proprietatibus Rerum, De. [Bartholomaeus Anglicus.] 
Ptholomaeus. [Ptolomaeus.] 

Ptolomaeus, Ptolemy the astronomer (Claudius Ptolemaeus, fl. circ. a.d. 150), 
I. 1S0-1, 263, 520; III. 137 1 ; IV- 3U» 349; V. 34. 

1 * Ptolomaeus in principio sui quadripartiti,' i.e. the Tetrabiblon or Quadripartitum de Apotelei' 
tnatibui et Judiciis Astrorutn y in four books. 

Pythagoras, Greek philosopher 1 (it.c. sS2-circ 506), III. 4; IV. 306, 321. 3:2, 
3 SS; V. 52. 
1 Benvenuto's 4 quotations' from Pythagoras are derived at secondhand from Chalcidius (the trans- 
lator of Plato's Timaeus), Aristotle, Cicero, etc. 

Quint ilianus, 1 Roman rhetorician (M. Fabius Quintilianus, circ. a.d. 40-1 iS), 
I. 178, 179; V. 245; 4 Quintilianus orator,' I. 17S; his De Institution* Orato- 
ria? I. 178; Liber de Causis} V. 282. 
1 The complete text of Quintilian was discovered by Poggio at the monastery of St. Gall in Switzer- 
land in 1416, during the Council of Constance. Petrarch possessed an incomplete ms., which was 
given to him by Lapo da Castiglionchio in 1350; this is the one to which he refers in his Epistle 
to Quintilian {Fam. XXIV. 7) : ' Oratoriarum lnstitutionum liber heu : discerptus et lacer venit ad 
manus meas.' (Cf. Nolhac, cp. cit. pp. 281-289). — * Bk. IX. — * This work is also mentioned by 
Petrarch in the above-quoted Epistle to Quintilian, where he refers to it as ' liber quern de Causis 
edidisti.' Nolhac indentifies it, not with the De Causis Corruptae Eloquent iae or Dialogus de 
Oratoribus (often attributed to Quintilian, but more probably the work of Tacitus), which was not 
discovered until the fifteenth century, but with the spurious Dec lamat tones, mhich in some mss. are 
entitled De Ch'ilibus Causis {pp. eit. p. 282). 

Quintus Curtius. [Curtius, Quintus.] 



Rabanus, doctor of the Church * (Hrabanus Maurus Magnentius, circ. 766-856), 

IV. 230, 307. 

1 Rabanus is freely quoted by Boccaccio in his Comento (I. 390-2, 405-6) and De Genealogia 
Deorum(\.%\ V. a; VIII. 6; IX. i; XII. 70). 

Raynaldus Veronensis, Veronese poet, V. 198. 1 

1 Benvenuto here quotes a couple of lines from an epitaph on Can Grande written by ' Raynaldus 
poetista Veronensis/ I can find no mention of him elsewhere. 

Remigius, Remi de St. Germain d'Auxerre (Reraigius Antissiodorensis, fl. circ. 
A.D. 8S0) ; his commentary on the De Nuptiis of Martian us Capella, III. 6; 
his commentary on Aelius Don at us, the grammarian, 1 V. 90. 
1 See Migne, Patrol. Lat. CXXXI. 49. 

Richardus de Sancto Victore, Richard of St. Victor, scholastic philosopher and 

mystic (d. 1173), V. 46. 
Ricobaldus Ferrariensis, Riccobaldo da Ferrara, chronicler (fl. circ. 1300), I. 412 1 ; 

V. 1 66. 2 

1 ' Magnus chronichista.' — 5 ' Ricobaldus Ferrariensis in sua Chronica.' 

Rodericus archiepiscopus toletanus, Rodrigo, Archbishop of Toledo, Spanish 
chronicler (d. 1247); his Chronica de gestis /fisfaniae, 1 II. 233. 
1 The chronicle of Rodrigo, together with that of Lucas, Bishop of Tuy (d. 1250), forms the basis 
of the Cronica General de Espafka (see Ticknor, Hist. Span. Lit. I. 144). 

Ruffinus. [Rufinus.] 

Rufinus, of Aquileia (Tyrannius Rufinus, circ. 345-410). the translator of Origen 
and Eusebius, and friend of St. Jerome, IV. I5, 1 230. 2 
1 Coupled as an historian with St. Augustine, St. Jerome, and Orosius. Benvenuto here apparently 
is alluding to the translation of Joseph us attributed to Rufinus. — 2 ' Ruffinus/ 


Salustius, 1 Sallust, Roman historian (Caius Sallustius Crispus, r..c. S6-34), II. 223 
{Bell. Cat. 57. § 1), 22S2 {Bell. Cat. 61. §§ 1-3); III. 39 {Bell. Cat. 54. § 6), 
i<A 3-3 (^ Cat. 1. § 1 ) ; IV. 2S3,* 434 {Bell. Cat. 36. § 1, 60. § 7) f V. 52 * 
{Bell. Cat. 2. § S), 4S9 K^U.Jug. 17. § 3)- 
1 Sallust was widely known in the Middle Ages. Brunetto Latino utilised him largely in his Tresor 
(see Chabaille, p. 715). Dante, oddly enough, never mentions him. and hardly apjxars to have read 
him. The reference to Cicero as ' nuovo cittadino' and to Catiline in the Conx'ivio (IV. 5, 11. 173-5) 
is perhaps a reminiscence of Bell. Cat. 23. § 6. Petrarch constantly quotes Sallust (see Nolhac, 
Pttrarque et rhumanisnte, pp. 246-7); Boccaccio comparatively seldom (see Hortis, O fere Lat ine 
del Boccaccio, p. 415). — f ' Salustius, nobilis et veridicus historicus'; Petrarch calls him 'nobilis 
veritatis historicus.' — * The statement here attributed to Sallust, that Tigris and Euphrates spring 
from the same source, which is repeated by several mediaeval writers, is not to be found in any of 
Sallust's extant works. Tozer (Hist. Anc. Geog. p. 272) says: 'As to the passage in Sallust . . . 
though we are not told in what part of his works it occurred, yet, as that writer composed a history of 
the campaigns of Lucullus in Asia, which was partly carried on in Armenia, it seems probable that it 
was introduced in this.' Benvenuto's authority was probably Isidore of Seville, who says: * Salustius 
autor certissimus asserit Tygrim et Euphratem uno fonte manare in Armenia' (Orig. XIII. 21). 
Isidore's statement was copied both by Brunetto Latino : * Salustes dit que TigTes et Eufrates issent 
en Hermenie de une meisme fontaine' (Trtsor, I. 123); and by Roger Bacon (Opus Majus, IV. 
Geograpkia). See the articles Bu irate and Tifcri in my Dante Dictionary.—* For *sed multi 
morales * Benvenuto (or his editor) reads ' sed morti morttles.' 

simonides By BENVENUTO DA IMOLA. 39 

Sappho, Greek lyric poetess (fl. circ. B.C. 600), IV. 76. 1 

1 Benvenuto's knowledge of Sappho was doubtless derived from Macrobius (Sat. V. 21. § 6) and 
from Ovid's ' Epistola Sapphus Phaoni' (Her. XV). 

Secundus philosophus, Athenian sophist of the time of Hadrian (a.d. 117-13S), 

reputed author of a collection of Sentcntiae, which are frequently quoted by 

mediaeval writers, 1 I. 279.2 

1 By Vincent of Beauvais, for example, in his Speculum Hist oriole (X. 70-71), by the author 

(supposed by some to be Brunetto Latino) of the Fiore di Filosofi, and by Bartolommeo da San 

Concord io in his Ammaestramenti degli Antichi. (For an account of the mss. and editions of the 

Sentential, see Fabricius, Bibl. Grate. I. 866-70). — * Benvenuto here says: 'navis est avis lignea, 

domus sine fundamento, ut ait Secundus philosophus.' This tententia is not included among those 

given by the writers mentioned in the preceding note. For ' Secundus philosophus' here, there is 

another reading ' sanctus philosophus.' 

Sedulius, Christian poet (fl. Cent. V.), IV. 230, 307. 1 

1 In the two passages Benvenuto evidently had in mind what Boccaccio says in the De Genealogia 
Deorum (XIV. 22). 

Seneca, 1 Roman philosopher and poet (Lucius Annaeus Seneca, B.C. 4-A.D. 65), 
I. 104, 177-9, J79-S°» 2 2S1, 324, m* 440, 520; II. 72, 276, 420, 421, 453, 
471; III. iS, 21, 32, 34, S4, S6, 275, 321, 3S1, 426, 435- 464, (4S2), 522; 

IV. 29,* 34, 35* 44. 45» Il6 » lSo » 6 2 4$. 27S. 3 6 9* 446, 49°: v - 5°> '9L 5 2I J 
his liber tragoediarum, II. 72, 276. 420, 471 ; V. 521 ; his Hercules Furens 
('tragoedia prima*), I. 104; II. 421 ; V. 50; his Hecuba or Troades ( 4 tra- 
goedia quae dicitur Troas'), II. 453; his Hifpolytus or Phaedra, IV. 116; 

V. 191 ; his Declamationes or Contrcvcrsiaef' I. 324; III. 21 ; his Efistolae 
ad Lucilium, III. 18, S4, S6; IV. 490; his De Bencficiis, III. 321 ; his De Ira, 

III. 426, 464; his Quaestioncs Xaturales, IV. 27S. 

Benvenuto, like most mediaeval writers, regarded Seneca the philosopher as distinct from the 
author of the tragedies; on the other hand the philosopher was credited with the authorship of 
the Declamationes or Contr over sine, which were written by his father, Marcus Annaeus Seneca, 
the rhetorician. (See my article on * Seneca Morale* in Giorn. Stor. Lett. ha!. XXXV. 334-S.) — 
: Uenvenuto here discusses the question as to the identity or not of 'Seneca moralis' and 'Seneca 
tragoedus.' (Sec note 1.) — 3 * Seneca moralis.' — * ' Seneca tragc»edus.* — •'• Discussion of the question 
as to the two Senecas. (See notes 1, 2.) — c The Declamationes here attributed to Seneca the philoso- 
pher were actually written by his father, M. Annaeus Seneca. (Sec note 1.) 

Servius, the commentator on Virgil (Servius Maurus, or Marius, Honoratus, 

fl. circ. A.D. 400), I. 4S (on Am. I. 242). 
Sidonius, Caius Sollius Apollinaris Sidonius, IJishop of Clermont, commonly 

known as (Saint) Sidonius Apollinaris (a.d. 431-4S9), I. 1S0 1 ; V. 472. 
1 'Sidonius in quodam suo libro metrico'; Benvenuto here quotes the opinion of Sidonius that 
Seneca the philosopher and Seneca the tragic writer were two distinct persons [Seneca]. This refer- 
ence to Sidonius is taken from a letter of Coluccio Salutati to Tancredo Vergiolesi in which the 
.Seneca question is discussed, and which was borrowed by Benvenuto from Coluccio for the purpose 
of his note on Seneca. (See Novati, Efiistolario di Coluccio Salutati, I. 154, and 170, note 2.) 

Simonides, 1 Greek lyric poet (B.C. 556-467), I. 18, 246 s ; IV. 37; 4 poeta Graecus,' 

IV. 3 7 8 

1 Benvenuto gives Aristotle (I. 246) and Valerius Maximus and Pliny (IV. 37) as his authorities 
for what he says of Simonides. — 8 From Aristotle, Rhet. II. 16: ' Unde a Simonide quoquc de diviti- 
bus ac sapientibus ad Hieronis uxorem dictum est, cum interrogasset utrum melius esse divitem an 
sapientem. Sapientes, inquit, in divitum januis video. Ad haec quoniam dignos se arbitrantur 


principatu. Ea enim habent quorum gratia dignum putant se caeteris dominari.' — * Benvenuto here 
states that Simonides died of joy on hearing that he had gained the prize for tragedy. He has mis- 
takenly applied to Simonides the story told of the death of Sophocles by Valerius Maximus (Mem. 
IX. 12. Ext. 5). Boccaccio (Comento, II. 17-18) tells the story (from Cicero, De Divination*, I. 87) 
of how Simonides was saved from drowning by means of a dream. 

Solinus, Latin writer on natural history, etc. (Caius Julius Solinus, perh. circ. 
a.d. 250), II. 204, 206. 1 
1 'Solinus de mirabilibus mundi' (XXVII. 99), quoted at second hand from Albertus Magnus 
De Animalilms (XXV.). The more usual title of Solinus* work is Collectanea Rerum Memorabi- 
lium, but it is quoted under the former title also by Boccaccio (e.g. Gtnetd. Deer. V. 12; Comenio, 
I. 392). Solinus was largely utilised by Brunetto Latino in his Trisor (see my article Brunetto 
Latino's obligation to Solinus, in Romania, XXIII. 62-77); he plays the part of guide in Fazio 
degli Uberti's Dittamondo. His work is frequently quoted both by Petrarch and by Boccaccio. (See 
Nolhac, PHrarqu* et rhumanisme, p. 302; Hortis, Opere Latin* del Boccaccio, p. 434.) 

Sophocles, Greek tragic poet (b.c. 495-406), IV. 37,1 306. 

1 Sophocles, and the other Greek poets here named, are all mentioned by Macrobius in the Satur- 
nalia (e.g. V. 19. §§ 9-1 1, 21. § 6). Petrarch, who in his Res Memorandae tells a story of Sophocles 
at second hand from Valerius Maximus (VIII. 7. Ext. § 12), commissioned the Calabrian Greek, 
Leontius Pilatus, to bring him mss. of Sophocles and Euripides from Constantinople (Sen. VI. i), 
but it does not appear that he ever received them. Boccaccio mentions Sophocles, together with 
Aeschylus, Euripides, and Simonides, in his Content o (II. 427)- 

Soranus, Valerius. [Valerius Soranus.] 

Statins, 1 Roman poet (Publius Papinius Statius, circ. a.d. 61-96), I. iS, 104, 321, 
476, 477. 478, 479; II- *9. 70, 72. 74. 77. 78, 83, 87, 276, 4S9, 517, 518, 520; 

III. 77, 253, 485; IV. 15, 16, 25, 27, 29, 130, 274, 364; his Thebaid, quoted, 
in prohemio sui Thebaidos, IV. 16; /'// Majori, 2 I. 104; II. 72, 77; III. 77; 

IV. 29; in suo Thebaidos, II. 276; in Thebaidos, II. 4S9; in prima Thebaidos, 
IV. 274; in II. Thebaidos % II. 517; in III Thebaidos, I. 476; in V sui 
Majoris, II. 19; in V. Majoris, IV. 130; in VI, II. S3; in VII. Thebaidos, II. 70 ; 
in VII, II. 51S ; in libra Villi, II. 520; in X, I. 477; in X. Thebaidos. IV. 
364; /'/; XII et ultimo Thebaidos, II. 7S ; his Achilleid, quoted, in prohemio 
Achilleidos, 1 IV. 16; in sua Minor/', quod dicitur Achilleida, III. 253; in 
prima Achilleidos, II. 87. 

1 Benvenuto (IV. 15), like Dante (Purg. XXI. 89), Petrarch (Rem. II. 125, Op. 214; Contra 
Galium, Op. 10S1), Boccaccio (Amorosa I'isione, V. 34), Chaucer (House 0/ Fame, III. 370), and 
most mediaeval writers, thought that Statius was a native of Toulouse. The mistake arose through 
a confusion of Statius the poet (who was actually born at Naples) with Statius Surculus or Ursulus, 
a rhetorician of Toulouse, who is mentioned by St. Jerome. (See Hortis, Studj suite Opere Latin* 
di Boccaccio, p. 408; Nolhac, Pttrarque et Vhumanisme, p. 162; Cochin, Lettres d* F. Nelli a 
Pe'trarque, pp. 285-7.) — 'That is, in the Tkebaid, this being his longest poem. Similarly Ovid's 
Metamorphoses is spoken of as Major, and the De Raptu Proserpina* of Claudian is spoken of as 
Minor [Claudianus : Ovidius]. — * Benvenuto here combats the opinion, — which was certainly held 
by Dante (Purg. XXI. 92-3) in spite of Benvenuto's quibble, — that the Achilleid*** left unfinished. 
The question aroused some interest in the Middle Ages ; thus we find Francesco Nelli writing in 1362 
(Ep. XXVIII. ed. Cochin) to Petrarch to ask his opinion, which, though not recorded in reply to 
this letter, is given elsewhere (Sen. XI. 17. Op. 895) to the effect that the poem was complete, an 
opinion which was shared by Nelli and by Forese de' Donati. (See Nolhac, op. cit., p. 165.) 

Suetonius, 1 Roman historian, author of the Vitae duodecim Caesarum (Caius Sue- 
tonius Tranquillus, b. circ. a.d. 70), I. 48, 159 (Vie. VI. § 52), 162, 163 (Vie. I. 

terentius BY BENVENUTO DA IMOLA. 41 

§45), 225 (Vit. VI. § 27), (22S)* (Vit. III. § 42), (250-1)' (Vit. IV. § 41), 
(288)* (Vit. VII. § 17), 440 (Vit. VI. § 35), 459 (Vit. VI. § 3 S); II. (326) 
(Vit. I. § 77)6, 372 (Vit. I. § 29), 379 (Vit. VIII. § i), 391, (460)6 (Vit. II. 
§ 9<>)» 559-6o (Vit. I. §§ 80-9); III. 79 (Vit. VI. § 49), 188 (Vit. I. § 2S), 272 
(Vit. I- § 54), 392 (Vit. I. §§ 31-2), 486 (Vit. I. § 35), 487 (Vit. I. § 57) ; IV. 
14, (ZZY (Vit. VIII. §§ 19, 3, 22, 13, 14), (55) 8 (Vit. VIII. § iS), 128 (Vit. I. 
§§ 49-52), 156, 198 (Vit. II. §§ 80, 22), 363 (Vit. I. § 47), 440, 445 (Vit. I. 
§§ 55-6). (446)' (ra . 1. §§ 50, 52 ) ; V. 16 (Vit. I. § 35), 472 (Vit. VI. § 31). 
1 Suetonius was a favourite author in the Middle Ages; he is quoted, for instance, more than 
thirty times by John of Salisbury in the Policraticus (see Schaarschmidt, Johannes Saresoeriensis, 
p. 89, n. 4), frequently by Petrarch in the Res Memoranda* and elsewhere (see Nolhac, Pitrarqu* 
et V humanism*, pp. 243-4), and by Boccaccio in his De Casibus Virorum /Hustrium, and in his 
Comento (I. 215, 350, 353). Benvenuto only twice in his Comentum speaks of Suetonius as 'Sueto- 
nius Tranquillus ' (viz. I. 440; III. 487). He seems to have been under the impression that there 
were two writers of the name of Suetonius, one the author of the I'itae duoaecim Caesar urn, the 
other the author of a history of the wars of Julius Caesar. This latter, whom he regarded as the 
elder, he refers to as ' Suetonius major de bello civili ' (V. 16;, and elsewhere (.IV. 440) he says * alter 
Suetonius fecit satis magnum librum de ista materia' (i.e. Caesar's wars). In his Romuleon he 
constantly (e.g. Lib. VIII. Capp. 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13. ff.) gives Suetonius as his authority when he is 
really quoting Caesar's Commentaries. In one place {Romuleon, VIII. 26; Vol. II. p. 255, ed. 
Guatteri) he actually quotes Caesar as 'Suetonius de duodecim Caesaribus.' Elsewhere (Vol. II. 
p. 303) he makes Suetonius the author of the De Iiello Atexandrino and the De Bello A/ricano. 
This mistake is the more curious in that Benvenuto himself in his C omentum (IV. 445) quotes the 
statement of Suetonius (I. § 56) tliat Caesar wrote an account of his own wars. This confusion, 
which seems not to have been confined to Benvenuto, is supposed by Hortis \Opere Latin* del 
Boccaccio, pp. 332 ff.) to have originated with Orosius, who in his Historia adversus Paganos (VI. 7. 
$$1,2) says: 'Anno ab urbe condita DCXCIII C. Caesare et L. Bibulo coasulibus lege Vatinia 
Caesari tres provinciae cum legionibus scptem in quinquennium datae Gallia Transalpina et Cisal- 
pina et Illyricus; Galliam Comatam postea Senatus adjecit. Hanc historian) Suetonius Tranquillus 
plenissime explicuit, cujus nos conpetentes portiunculas decerpsimus.* Orosius then proceeds to give 
a long account of Caesar's doings which is simply compiled from the Commentaries. — * Claudius 
Tiberius Nero. — s Caligula. — • Vitellius. — r * Sylla. — f ' Augustus. — 7 Domitian. — • Domitian. — 
v Julius Caesar and Cleopatra. 

Tacitus, Cornelius, 1 Roman historian (circ. a.d. 60-120), I. 152, 179, 201, 440; 
IV. 258. 

1 Tacitus was unknown to Petrarch; Boccaccio was acquainted certainly with books XIII.-XV1. 
of the A nnales, xnd books 1 1.- 111. of the Historia*. (See Nolhac, Boccace et Tacite). Benvenuto, 
whose knowledge of Tacitus was probably derived from Boccaccio, refers only to Annates XV, 
except in one case (I. 201), where his reference appears to be an error. Tacitus is quoted by Boc- 
caccio in his Comento (I. 333, 397, 400, 402), whence Benvenuto's references were apparently derived, 
and in his De G*ti*alojria Deorum, and is utilised in the De Claris Muluribus. (See Hortis, O/ere 
Latin* del Boccaccio, pp. 425-6.) Benvenuto refers to Tacitus also in his Libellus Augusta! is in 
the life of Claudius Caesar. 

Terentius, 1 Terence, Roman comedian (P. Terentius Afer, circ. H.c. 190-159), 
I. 47; II. 2S; IV. 35; his Eunuchus ('secunda comoedia quae intitulatur 
Eunuchus'), II. 2S. 
1 All the six plays of Terence were known in Benvenuto's day. Petrarch was acquainted with 
them and quotes them some thirty times (Nolhac, Pitrarque et f humanism* , pp. 154, 157). Boc- 
caccio {Comento, I. 134) asserts that Christ quoted Terence to St. Paul, and regards this as a proof 


that poetry is not cibus diaooli: — ' "Son Cristo medesimo incontr6 a Paolo, abbatuto dalla sua 
potenza in terra, us6 il verso di Terenzio cioe : Durum est tibi contra stimulum calcitrare t Ma sia 
di lungi da me che io creda, Cristo queste parole, quantunque molto davanti fosse, da Terenzio 
prendesse ; assai mi basta a confermare la mia intenzione, il nostra Signore aver voluto alcuna volu 
usare la parola e la sentenza prolata gia per la bocca di Terenzio, acciocche egli appaia che del tutto 
i versi de' poeti non sono cibo del diavolo.' The phrase 'adversus stimulum calces* occurs in the 
Phcrmio (I. 2. 28). 

Themistius, Greek philosopher and rhetorician (fl. circ. a.d. 380), 1. 1S3 1 ; IV. 106. 

1 ' Themistius primus commentator Aristotelis.' A Latin translation of the commentaries of 
Themistius existed at an early date, made not direct from the Greek but through the medium of the 
Arabic. (See Jourdain, Traductions Latin** d'Aristote, pp. 166, 405.) 

Theophrastus, Greek philosopher (d. B.C. 27S), I. 51 7. 1 

1 Theophrastus* saying, here referred to, as to the shortness of human life is taken by Benvenuto 
(without acknowledgment) direct from Cicero, Tusc. Dis/. t III. 28: 'Theophrastus autem moriens 
accusasse naturam dicitur, quod cervis et cornicibus vium diuturnam, quorum id nihil interesset, 
hominibus, quorum maxime interfuisset, tarn exiguaro \itam dedisset.' 

Tholomaeus, T0I0-, [Ptolomaeus]. 

Thomas de Aquino, St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), I. 262; III. 91, 300, 303; 
V. 34, 41, 421, 42S, 430, 461, 472; his Contra Gentiles, V. 42S. 

Trogus Pompeius, Roman historian, author of the lost Historiae Philippicae, of 
which an abridgment by Justin has been preserved (circ. B.C. 20), I. 195; 
III. 62, 31 1, 1 339; IV. 298. [Justinus.] 

1 Benvenuto here state* that Trogus was contemporary with Augustus, a fact which may be gath- 
ered from Justin, XL1I1. 5. $$ 11, 12. There is an interesting mention of Trogus in the De Civitate 
Deiol St. Augustine (IV. 6), to which reference is made by Petrarch (Contra Gall^ Op. 1080, ed. 1581). 
Boccaccio mentions Trogus once only in his Comento (I. 357), in connection with Justin. 

Turpinus archiepiscopus remensis, Turpin, 1 Archbishop of Rheims, traditional 
author of the Historic Karoli Magni et Rotholandi, II. 513; V. 213 2 ; his 
chronicle (II. 456)' (Hist. §§ 22-3); (II. 473)* (Hist. § 17); II. 513 (Hist. 
§21); V. 213 (Hist. §20). 

1 Turpinus has been identified with Tilpinus, who was Archbishop of Rheims from about 753 
to 800. (See Ward, Catalogue 0/ Romances in the Department 0/ MSS. in the British Museum, 
I. 546 ff .)— * By a blunder of the editor, or of the copyists, the text here reads Trictpinus instead of 
Turpinus. — 5 The defeat of Roland at Roncesvalles. — * The giant Ferracutus. 

Valerius Maximus, 1 compiler of the De Factis et Dictis Memorabilibus Libri IX 
(circ. A.D. 25), 1.115,165,177; H.72,318; III. 25; V. 107 2 ; 'Valerius,' 1. 34, 
46, 166, 170, 173, 180, 196, 207, 230, 317, 322, 3S6, 404, 409, 479, 514 ; II. 11, 
22, 27, 75» 84, °3. 2 9^. 3*7, 335' 34i ; HI. 24, 31, 232, 2S4, 413; IV. 35, 37, 
44, 124 ; V. 16, 1 14, 191, 348, 39S, 44S ; his Liber de Memorabilibus} II. 296 ; 
quoted, I. 34 (Mem. VI. 9. Ext. 4); I. 115 (Mem. VIII. 14. Ext. 5); I. 165 
(Mem. VI. 1. § 1); I. 166 (Mem. IV. 6. § 4); I. 173 (Mem. III. 3. Ext. 2); 
1. 174 (Mem. III. 3. Ext. 3); 1. 177 (Mem. V. 3. § 4 )<; I. 1S0 (Mem. VIII. 12. 
Ext. 1); I. 196 (Mem. IX. 3. Ext. 4); I. 207 (Mem. IX. I. § 9); I. 230; 


I. 317 (Mem, VIII. 9. § 2); I. 322 (Mem. VIII. 9. Ext. 3); I. 386 (Mem. VIII. 

II. ExL 4); I. 404; I. 409 (Mem. I. 7. £x/. 6); I. 514 (Mem. IV. 5. Ext. 
2)*; II. 11 (Mem. VIII. 14); II. 22 (Mem. IX. 10. ^x/. 2); II. 276; II. 72 
(J/to. VIII. 15. Ext. 3); II. 75 (J/to. I. i.§ 1); II. 84 (Mem. II. 1. § 1); 
II. 93 (Mem. VIII. 7. £*/. 2, 3); II. 296 (jVto. IX. 2. £x/. 9); II. 31S (Mem. 
VII. 3./W.); II. 327 (Mem. II. 8. § 7); II. 335 (Mem. IX. 3. £*/. 2); II. 341 
(Mem. I. 8. ^x/. 19); III. 24, 25 ; III. 31 (Mem. VI. 2. § 5); III. 232 (Mem. 

II. 1. § 3); III. 284 ; III. 413 (Mem. V. 1. Ext. 2); IV. 44 (Mem. II. 1. § 5); 
IV. 124 (Mem. VIII. n. Ext. 4); V. 16 (A/to. II. 6. §7); V. 114 (Mem.U.6. 
§ 12); V. 191 (Mem. V. 3. £\rr\ 3 ; V. 6. £*/. 2); V. 348 (Mem. I. 8); V. 39S 
(Mem. VIII. 11. .£.r/. 4); V. 448; also (without mention of Valerius), 

III. 172 (Mem. V. 10. Ext. 3 ) 7 ; III. 280 (Mem. VIII. 11. Ext. 4)*; HI. 426 
(Mem. IV. 1. Ext. 2)*; III. 455 (Mem. VIII. 7. £>/. 4, 5, 8; IX. 2. Ext. 
5) 10 ; IV. 37 (Mem. IX. 12. Ext. 4)"; IV. 306 (J/to. VIII. 14. § ip ; jy. 
367 (A/to. IV. 5. Ext. 1)." 

1 Petrarch possessed a ms. of Valerius Maximus, whom he quotes very frequently (Nolhac, Petmrque 
et l % humanism*, p. 250). — 5 Benvenuto wrote a commentary on Valerius Maximus (cf. IV. 351; in 
this passage he appears to refer to a rival commentator. His own work, which was completed 
between 1387 and 13S8, and was dedicated to Niccol6 II of Este, Benvenuto's patron at Ferrara, 
has not yet been printed. It appears from the following passage in a letter from Pier Paolo Vergerio 
(the biographer of Petrarch), written from Padua on June 17, 1390, to Ugo da Ferrara, shortly after 
Benvenuto's death, that it was uncertain at that time whether the commentary on Valerius had been 
completed : ' Fama erat quod super libro magni Valerii opus nulli priorum cessurum cudebat. Quod 
qui eventus exceperit dubium est. Creditur quod nondum in to tarn personam exuerat.' Two mss. of 
it have been preserved. (See Rossi-Case, Di Maestro Benvenuto da /mo/a, Commentator* Dan- 
tesco, pp. 96, 146-7.) — s This is the only occasion on which the work of Valerius is mentioned by 
name. — 4 Loosely quoted. — l Loosely quoted. — e The story of I>emosthenes and the harlot, here 
referred by Benvenuto to Valerius, is not found in that author; it is told by Aulus Gellius (I. S. 
55 5. 6), who was doubtless Benvenuto's authority. — ' Anaxagoras. — * Praxiteles' Venus. — * Architas 
and Plato. — ,0 «Socrates, Democritus, and Canieades; Ptolomaeus Physcon (or Benvenuto 
and some mss. of Valerius read). — n Euripides* death. — w Scipio and Ennius. — 13 Spurinna. 

Valerius Soranus, Roman poet (Quintius Valerius Soranus, fl. circ. r..c. 100), 
III. 327-S. 1 

1 Benvenuto here quotes the two hexameter lines of Soranus which have been preserved at second- 
hand from St. Augustine (Civ. Dei, VII. 9). 

Varo. [Varro.] 

Varro, 1 4 the most learned of the Romans' (Marcus Terentius Varro, B.C. 116-2S), 
II. S 4 2 ; III. 197,8 328,* 432*; IV. 36, 6 293> 7 3 00 '* 3o6. 

1 Benvenuto's knowledge of Varro was derived from St. Augustine and from Macrobius. On 
Petrarch and Varro, see Nolhac, Pitrarque et P human is me, pp. 3°4-8; on Boccaccio and Varro, 
see Hortis, O/ere Latine del Boccaccio, pp. 434-6. —» From St. Augustine, Civ. Dei, XVI II. 9.— 
» Civ. Dei, 1 1 1 . 4 ; VI . 2 . — 4 Civ. Dei, VI 1 . 9. — * Civ. Dei, 1 1 1 . 4 : V 1 . a. — 6 From Petrarch. Fam. 
XXIV. 5. — 7 Civ. Dei, VI. 2; VII. 30. — " From Macrobius, Sat. I. 18. §4. 

Varus, Roman jurist (Publius Alfenus Varus, fl. circ. B.C. 40), III. 197 1 ; IV. 306.' 
1 Cf. Petrarch, Rented. Utr. Fort., II. 125.—' Benvenuto here speaks of Varus as •Quintilius 
Varus,' and calls him a poet. 


Vicentius Belvacensis, Vincent of Beauvais, the encyclopaedist (circ. 1190-circ. 
1264); his Speculum Historialc> III. 38. 1 

1 Benvenuto here severely criticises Vincent of Beauvais for his inaccuracy : • Nota quod Vicen- 
tius Belvacencis in suo Speculo HistoriaJi, quod fuit opus vere gallicura, sen bit quod Cato Uticensis 
fecit libellum quo pueri scholastic! utuntur ; quod non solum est falsum sed impossible, quia in illo 
libello fit mentio de Lucano, qui fuit tempore Xeronis. Dicit etiam quod Cicero Ions romanat 
eloquentiae fuit legatus Caesaris in Gallia, quod est similiter falsum, quia ille fuit Q. Cicero frater 
M. Ciceronis.' (As to the latter point, cf. Nolhac, PHrarque et V humanism*, p. 191.) 

[Viliani, Giovanni 1 ], Florentine chronicler (d. 1348), I. 230-3, 347, 414-16, 453, 
463. 5*3» 537. 540; II- 42. 46, 49» 5°» 5$. "4, 1/6-8, 220, 262-4, 3 02 » 3°6-8» 
314, 319-20, 341, 342, 346-50, 503, 506, 510, 511, 512, 525-6; III. 102-3, 
105-7, 108-9, 207-8, 210-11, 213, 215, 216, 233, 316-17, 345, 383, 444-6. 528, 
531-5 ; IV. 79, 377, 484, 489- 

1 Benvenuto does not mention Viliani by name, but he made very considerable use of his chronicle, 
sometimes whole consecutive chapters of it being translated almost word for word. It will be found 
that most of the matter on the pages referred to above comes from Viliani, though his accounts are 
occasionally supplemented from other sources. 

Virgilius, Virgil, Roman poet (Publius Virgilius Maro, it.c. 70-19); his Aeneid} 
1- 34» 45» 46, 49. 60, and/j-ww ; his Eclogues, I. 46, 47, 51, 55, 56, etc., etc.; 
his Georgia, I. 51, 56, 156, etc., etc. 

1 On Benvenuto's declension of Aeneis, Bucolka, Georgua, see my note in GiornaU Storico 
delta Letteratura ftaliana, XXXIV. 274. 

Vitruvius, Roman architect (Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, fl. circ. B.C. 50); his Liber 
de Architectural IV. 37. 1 

1 Vitruvius, who is apparently nowhere mentioned by Petrarch, is several times quoted by Boccac- 
cio in his De Gencalogia Deoruw (III. 21 ; IV. 54; XII. 70), as well as in his De Montibus, etc. 
(See Hortis. Ofere latine del Boccaccio, p. 434.) 1 have not been able to identify the passage about 
Homer, referred to here by Benvenuto. Perhaps he had in mind the description of Homer as 
4 poetarum parens philologiaeque omnis dux ' in I'.k. VII. % S. 


Wilhelmus Durandus. [Guglielmus Durantes.] 

Zeno episcopus Veronensis, St. Zeno, Bishop of Verona (circ. 356-3S0), 1 author 
of various sermons and theological treatises ; his Liber de avaricia, I. 256. 
1 See Tiraboschi, Storia della Letteratura ltaliana, II. 600-1. An edition of St. Zeno's works 
was published at Verona in 1739; and an Italian translation, by Dionisi, appeared at the same place 
in 17S4. 


One of the striking features of the commentary of Benvenuto da Imola 
on the Divina Commedia is the frequency of his references to Homer. 
During the Middle Ages, down to about the middle of the fourteenth 
century, the Homeric poems were practically unknown to western Europe. 
The Iliad was accessible — the term is hardly appropriate — only in the 
miserable epitome in Latin hexameters, commonly known as Pindarus 
Thebanus de bello Trojano, in which the twenty-four books of the original 
are condensed into a little more than a thousand lines. 2 A few passages 
both from the Iliad and the Odyssey were known to mediaeval writers 
through the medium of Cicero, and of the Latin translations of Aristotle, 
in certain of whose works Homer is quoted pretty frequently. Thus 
Dante, who quotes Homer six times (the Iliad four times, and the Odyssey 
twice), got all his quotations save one from Aristotle; viz. Iliad, XXIV, 
258-9, quoted in the Vita Xuova (§ 2, 11. 51-2 8 ), the Convivio (IV, 20, 1. 37), 
and the De Monarchia (II, 3, 1. 55) from Ethics, VII, 1; — Iliad, II, 
204, quoted in the De Monarchia (I. 10, 11. 29-31), from Metaphysics. 
XII, 10; — and Odyssey, IX, 114, quoted in the De Monarchia (I, 5, 
11. 34-6), from Politics, I, 2 ; the remaining passage, Odyssey, I, 1, quoted 

1 Reprinted from Romania, xxix. 403-415. 

2 Actually 1069 lines, which are distributed into eight books of very unequal length, the 
fifth and seventh books containing respectively only 26 and 55 lines each, while the eighth 
book contains 331 lines. This epitome, which was also known as Homerus Latin us or 
Homerus de bello Trojano, was several times printed in the fifteenth century, viz. at Venice, 
without date, but probably 1477 {Proctor 4264) ; at Parma, in 1492 {Proctor 6S66) ; at 
Paris, in 1499 {Proctor 8327) ; it was also twice printed at Fano at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, viz. in 1505 and 1515. There are four mss. of the work in the British 
Museum, viz. Egerton 2630; Harl. 2582; Hart. 2560; and Add. 15,601 (which is incom- 
plete). Cf. Joly, Benoit de Sainte-More et le Roman de Troie, pp. 15 1-4. Owing to an 
acrostic {It aliens) in the first eight lines of the poem, some have thought that the author 
was Silius Italicus. Cf. Novati, Epistolario di Coluccio Salutati, III, 274, n. 3. 

« The line-references are to the text of the Oxford Dante. 



in the Vita Nuova (§ 25, 11. 90-3), comes from the Ars Poetica of Horace 
(11. 141-2). 

Benvenuto da Imola, whose commentary on the Divina Commedia was 
completed in the year 1 380 or perhaps a little later, 1 quotes the Iliad and 
Odyssey no less than twenty-eight times. 2 The question as to how he 
obtained his knowledge of them — he certainly was totally ignorant of 
Greek, 8 so that he could not have read them in the original, — is one of 
considerable interest. In Benvenuto's day, thanks to the untiring exertions 
of Petrarch and Boccaccio, a complete Latin translation of both the Iliad 

1 The date of the completion of the final draft of Benvenuto's commentary is fixed at 
about the year 15S0 from internal evidence, the latest reference to contemporary events 
being, as is usually alleged, to the destruction of the Castle of Sant' Angelo at Rome in 
1379, during the contest between the partisans of Pope Urban VI, and those of his rival, 
Cardinal Robert of Geneva, who became anti-Pope under the title of Clement VII (vol. II. 
pp. 8, 53). There is. however, another allusion in the commentary, which seems to have 
escaped the notice of Benvenuto's biographers, and which may possibly point to a some- 
what later date than the year 13S0. This allusion occurs in the comment on the word 
Cesare in the first canto of the Paradiso (vol. IV, p. 305). where, after speaking of the 
triumphs of the old Roman Emperors, Benvenuto adds, by way of contrast, that "our 
present Emperor devotes himself to the cult of Father Bacchus*' (Xos/er zero imfcrator 
Libcrum fatrcm colit). This seems, at first sight, to be a pointed reference to the intem- 
perate habits of the Emperor Wenceslaus, which gained him the nickname of the " toper *' 
or " wine bibber." In this case, unless we are to assume that Wenceslaus already within 
two years of his accession (in 137S) had become notorious for his drunken habits, of which 
there appears to be no evidence, we must suppose this part of the commentary to have been 
written later than 13S0 by some years. I find, however, that in his Libcllus Augusta 'is. 
which was certainly written within a year or two of the accession of Wenceslaus. Benvenuto 
uses a similar expression of the Emperor Charles IV (the father and predecessor of Wen- 
ceslaus). whom he describes as *• Baccho immolans*' — a reproach which appears to have 
been levelled at that emperor by Boccaccio also (see Cochin, Etudes iialiennes. p. no. 
The reference in the commentary, therefore, may very well be to the Emperor Charles IV. 
and not to his successor. 

2 Vol. I. pp. 26, 7;, 124, 159; vol. II, pp. 70, 72, 77, 87, SS, 2S0, 2S2. 2S6-7, 2S8, 44S. 467, 
4S2 ; vol. Ill, pp. ^%, 12S. 259, 330, 339, 356, 460, 501 ; vol. IV, pp. 162. 364. His references 
to Homer altogether, including even- mention of him, are seventy in number. 

* That Benvenuto knew no Greek is plainly evident from the absurd etymologies with 
which his commentary abounds ; e.g. " Acheron dicitur sine salute, ab a, quod est sine 
et ehere, quod est Sake" (vol. I, p. 123): 4, hypocrita interpretatur desu/er auratus" 
(vol. II, p. 168) ; "Calliope a e/ia/o, quod est bonum, et fhonos. quod est sonus" (voL III, 
p. 7); 4i pedagogus a pedos, quod est /uer, et goge, quod est ducere' (vol. III. p. 323) ; 
'• geomantia dicitur a geos, quod est terra, et mantos, divinatio v (vol. II 1. p. 497) ; " ambrosia, 
quasi aurosia: aurosis enim graece dicitur cibus vel esca" (vol. IV. p. S9) ; " Eunoe, sic 
dictum ab eu, quod est bonum, et noys, quod est mens" (vol. IV. p. 179) ; "Crisostomo 
interpretatur os aureum, nam grisos graece, aurum latine, et stomox, id est os " (vol. V, p. S9» : 
and so on. These etymologies, of course, are not Benvenuto's own, but are taken for the 
most part from the Vocabularium of Papias, the Magnae Derivations of Uguccione da 
Pisa, or the Catholicon of Giovanni da Genova. 


and the Odyssey was in existence in Italy. The story of how this trans- 
lation came to be made is as follows. 1 

In the year 1353 Petrarch had made the acquaintance at Avignon of 
Nicolas Sigeros, who was present at the Papal Court as the envoy of the 
Greek Emperor, for the purpose of negotiating the projected union of the 
Greek and Latin Churches. In the following year Petrarch, to his great 
delight, received from Constantinople, through the good offices of Sigeros, 
who had returned thither, a ms. of the Homeric poems in the original 
Greek. His letter of thanks for this munificent gift, dated from Milan, 
has been preserved among the Epistolae de rebus familiar ibus. "You 
have sent me," he writes to Sigeros, " from the confines of Europe a gift 
than which nothing could be more worthy of the donor, more gratifying 
to the recipient, or more noble in itself. Some make presents of gold and 
silver, others of gems and precious stones, others again of jeweller)* and 
goldsmith's work. You have given me Homer, and, what makes it the 
more precious, Homer pure and undefiled in his own tongue. Would, 
however, that the donor could have accompanied his gift ! for, alas ! your 
Homer has no voice for me, or rather I have no ears for him ! Yet the 
mere sight of him rejoices me, and I often embrace him and sigh over him, 
and tell him how I long to hear him speak. 8 " Petrarch's ignorance of 
Greek, over which he laments in the above letter to Sigeros, caused Homer 
to remain a sealed book to him for several years after he had come into 
possession of this precious ms., during which time he eagerly sought for 
some means of procuring a Latin translation, whereby he might become 
acquainted with the contents of his treasure, even if only at second-hand. 
At last the wished-for opportunity presented itself. In the winter of 135S-9 
he made the acquaintance at Padua of a Calabrian Greek,* Leontius 

1 Cf. Hortis, Studj suite opere latinc del Boccaccio, pp. 502 ff.; and Kolhac, Petraryue 
et rhumanisnu, pp. 322-3, 339 ff. 

2 This letter, of which the above is a brief abstract, is printed by Fracassetti, Francisci 
Petrarcae Epistolae de rebus familiaribus et r<m7z*,vol.II, pp. 472-5 (Lib. XVIII, Epist.ii). 
Cf. Nolhac, op. cit., p. 323. 

* Leontius, in order to pass as a pure Greek, gave himself out to be a native, not of 
Calabria, but of Thessaly, and Boccaccio consequently, not unwilling doubtless to enhance 
the value of the instruction he received from Leontius, frequently refers to him in his 
Comento so/ra la Divina Commedia as " Leon Tessalo" (Lex. xn, vol. I, p. 319 ; Lex. xix, 
vol. I, p. 467 ; Lex. xxvi, vol. II, p. 48 ; Lex. xxix, vol. II, p. 83), or " Leone Tessalo" (Lex. xvi, 
vol. I, p. 394) ; similarly in his De Gcnealogia Deorum he calls him " Leontius Thessalus " 
(Lib. VII, cap. 41) or "Leontius Pilatus Thessalonicensis " (Lib. XV, cap. 6). Boccaccio, 
however, must have known that Leontius was a Calabrian, for Petrarch had told him as 
much in a letter which is printed among the Epistolae rerum senilium : " Leo noster vere 
Calaber, sed ut ipse vult Thessalus, quasi nobilius sit graecum esse quam italum; idem 


(or Leo) Pilatus by name, whom he employed to make translations of 
certain passages from his ms. of Homer. Shortly after (at the beginning 
of 1360), Leontius, at the invitation of Boccaccio, went to Florence, where 
he was domiciled under Boccaccio's own roof, and here, at the instigation 
of Petrarch and at his charges, 1 he made a complete translation into Latin 
prose of the Iliad and the Odyssey -, from a ms. which appears to have been 
purchased by Boccaccio for the purpose. 3 This translation, which was 
begun in 1360, at last came into Petrarch's hands in 1367, and was at once 
copied, under his superintendence, into two volumes which are still extant 

tamen ut apud nos graecus sit, apud illos puto italus, quo scilicet utrobique peregrin a nobili- 
tetur origine" {Lib, III, Epist. v, Basle ed., p. 775). Salvini, misled by Boccaccio's calling 
Leontius" Leon Tessalo," in a note to Let. xxix of the Cotnento (voL II, p. 83), says : " Quest' 
era un Greco di Tessalonica." Leontius seems to have been a repulsive personage, and it 
is a proof of their devotion to letters, and their ardent thirst for a knowledge of Greek, that 
Petrarch and Boccaccio endured his presence as they did. Petrarch, in the above-quoted 
letter to Boccaccio, speaks of him as " magna bellua " ; and Boccaccio, under whose roof at 
Florence he lived for three years while the translation of Homer was being made, describes 
him as follows in his list of the authorities utilised in the De Genealogia Deorum . " Leon- 
tium Pilatum Thessalonicensem virum, et ut ipse asserit, praedicti Barlaae auditorem, 
persaepe deduco; qui quidem aspectu horridus homo est, turpi facie, barba prolixa, et 
capilitio nigro, et meditatione occupatus assidua, moribus incultus, nee satis urbanus homo 
. . . eum legentem Homerum, et mecum singulari amicitia conversantem fere tribus annis 
audivi . . . ilium in propriam domum suscepi, et diu hospitem habui {Lib. XV, caff. 6. 7). 
Cf. Hortis, of. cit.. pp. 502-3. 

1 Hortis {of. cit., p. 508) says : '■ La prima versione completa d*Omero che, nell' Italia 
risorta alia classica letteratura, abbia veduto la luce, fu fatta per eccitamento di Francesco 
Petrarca. per opera di Leonzio Pilato, a spese di Giovanni Boccacci." Nolhac, however 
{of. cit.. p. 345, n. 2), contests this, and says it ought to be 4 * per eccitamento e a spese di F. IV 
He reconciles the respective statements of Petrarch {Sen. 111. Efist. v, Basle ed., p. 776) 
and Boccaccio {Gcncal. Deor. XV, 7), as to the expenses borne by each in the making of 
the translation, as follows : " Boccace a acquis de ses deniers le premier manuscrit d'Homcre 
qui soit venu a Florence; Petrarque a donne a Leon Pilate la remuneration nccessaire 
pour le travail execute a l'aide de ce manuscrit." 

2 See Nolhac, of. cit. t pp. 341-2, where he shows that it could not have been from 
Petrarch's ms. that the translation at Florence was made. It may be noted here that 
Boccaccio certainly possessed a ms. of Homer of his own, for he expressly mentions the fact 
in a passage of the De Cenealogia Deorum, where he justifies himself for having intro- 
duced Greek quotations into his work : " Seu hos, seu alios dicturos non dubito quoniam 
ostentationis gratia graeca carmina open meo immiscuerim, quod satis adverto non ex 
charitatis fomite emissum, quinimo uredine livoris impii impellente ex adusti cordis 
intrinseco haec emittatur objectio, impie factum est. Ast ego profecto non com move bo r 
opitulante Deo, sed more solito humili gradu in responsum ibo. Dico igitur, si nesciunt car- 
pentes immeritum, insipidum est ex rivulis quaerere quod possis ex fonte percipere. Erant 
Homer i libri mihi, et adhuc sunt, ex quibus multa open nostra accommoda sumpta sunt." 
{Lib. XV, caf. 7.) It is obvious from the context that the " Homeri libri " referred to were 
not the Latin translation of Leontius Pilatus, but the original Greek. 


with marginal annotations in the poet's own handwriting. 1 Leontius, mean- 
while, who had gone to Constantinople in search of other Greek mss., had 
met with a somewhat singular death at the beginning of this same year, 
having been struck by lightning during a storm in the Adriatic on his 
voyage back to Venice. 2 

This Latin translation of Homer was largely utilised by Boccaccio, both 
in his Latin works, 8 and in his commentary on the Divina Commedia 4 ; 
and there can be very little doubt that this same translation was, directly 
or indirectly, the source of Benvenuto da Imola's knowledge of Homer. 

Benvenuto quotes the Iliad eight times, and the Odyssey twenty times b ; 
but only in two instances does he quote with sufficient precision to make 
it possible to identify the version of which he made use. By means of 
these two instances, however, I am able to prove conclusively that this 
version is identical with that made by Leontius Pilatus. The first of these 
two quotations (vol. II, p. 8S) C comes from Iliad, I, 69-72 : 

Homerus, primo llyados, dicit quod Calcas erat augur avium optimus, qui 
sciebat omnia praesentia, praeterita, et futura, ... per divinationem quam sibi 
dederat Apollo. 

1 Hortis, op. cit. } p. 507, n. 4 ; Nolhac, op. cit., p. 247. These two volumes are now in the 
Bibliotheque national (Par. 7880. 1, 2). Hortis (op. cit., pp. 543-76) has printed the first 
book of the Iliad and the first book of the Odyssey from these mss. Nolhac (p. 349) gives 
good reasons for supposing that Petrarch was engaged upon the annotations to Homer at 
the time of his death, which took place in his study at Arqua on 18 July, 1374. 

2 The manner of his death is related by Petrarch in a letter to Boccaccio: 4 * O male igitur, 
o pessime actum de Leone dicam nostro, cogit enim pietas atque ingens miseratio, sine 
stomacho jam de illo loqui, de quo pridem multa cum stomacho, mutatus est animus semper 
meus, cum illius hominis fortuna, quae cum misera fuerit, nunc horrenda est. ... O quid 
dicam. miserabilem, terrificamque rem audies. Jamque Bosphorum atque Propontidem, 
jamque Hellespontum, Aegaeumque, et Ionium, maria Graeca transiverat, jam Italicae 
telluris, ut auguror, aspsctu laetus dicerem, ni natura respueret : at equidem minus moestus, 
Adriacum sulcabat aequor, dum repente, mutata coeli facie pelagique, saeva tempestas 
exoritur, caeterisque ad sua munera effusis, Leo miser, malo affixus inhaeserat. Malo 
(inquam) vere, malorumque ultimo, quod per omne aevum multa perpesso, dura in finem 
fortuna servaverat. Horret calamus infelicis amid casum promere; ad summam, inter 
multas et horrisonas coeli minas, iratus Juppiter telum torsit, quo disjectae antennae, 
incensaque carbasa in favillas abiere, et lambentibus malis flammis aethereis, cunctis stratis 
ac territis, solus ille noster periit — hie Leonis finis." {Sen. VI, episi. 1 ; Basle ed., pp. 806-7.) 

* Chiefly in the De Genealogia Deorum. See the list of passages given by Hortis 
(op. cit., pp. 371-2) ; which is, however, far from being complete. 

« In the Comento the Iliad is quoted three times (Lez. xvm, vol. I, p. 462; Lex. xix, 
vol. I, p. 467; Lez. xxn, vol. I, p. 511), and the Odyssey three times (Lex. I, vol. I, p. 97; 
Lez. vii, vol. I, p. 201 ; Lez. xvm, vol. I, p. 466). 

* See above, p. 46, n. 2. The Iliad references are, vol. I, p. 26 (//. xvm, 109-10) ; 
vol. I, p. 77 (//. 1, 1) ; vol. II, p. $7 (II. 11, 123-S) ; vol. II, p. SS (II. 1, 68-73) J vo1 - ". P- 28 ° 
(//. v, 4) ; vol. II, p. 282 (//. iv, 358) ; vol. Ill, p. 259 (//. xxiv, 765-6) ; voL III, p. 339 
(//. 11, 690-1). 6 In the comment on In/erno, xx, no. 


The rendering of Leontius is as follows : 

Calcas Thestorides augur avium valde optimus, 

Qui sciebat queque presentia queque futura et preterita . . . 

Quam divinationem hanc enira dedit sibi 

Phebus Apollo. 1 

The second quotation (vol. Ill, p. 128),* which is from Odyssey •, XI, 
298-300, is more convincing still, as it contains a mistranslation, which 
occurs also in the version of Leontius. Benvenuto, a propos of Castor 
and Pollux, says : 

Homerus, XI Odysseae, introducit Ulyssem dicentem: 
Et Ledam vidi Tyndari uxor em, 
Quae sub Tyndaro f ortissimos * genuit Alios, 
Castorem equo bellicosum, 4 pugillo bonum Pollucem. 

Leontius Pilatus renders : 

Et Ledam vidi Tyndarei uxorem, 

Que sub Tyndareo fortes sensibus genuit filios, 

Castorem equo bellicosum 8 et pugillo bonum 

Polydeuchea'. 6 

Of Benvenuto's twenty quotations from the Odyssey no less than sixteen 
are from the eleventh book. The eleventh book of the Odyssey^ of course, 
is that which contains the description of Ulysses* visit to Hades ; and this 

1 From Hortis, of. cit., pp. 545-6. See above, p. 49. n. 1. The passage in the origi- 
nal is: 

KdXxas 6<0Top/8i7*, oiu/t>oT6\u)v ox dpicros • 

6s i&r) t& t fopra, rd r iacb^uva, rpo r fovra, . . . 

rjv dia fxarroffvvrip, ti)i» oi rope <t>oifiot ' At6\\wv. 

2 In tlie comment on Purgatorio^ iv, 61. 

» Fortissimos is no doubt a copyist's error for fortes sensibus ( = KpartpbQpopt). for 
which it might easily be mistaken in mss., where sensibus would appear in the abbreviated 

* Equo bellicosum is meant to represent the Greek lww6Sapjop t of which, of course, it is 
a misrendering, the Greek word meaning " tamer of steeds." 

* I am indebted to the kindness of M. Gaston Raynaud of the Bibliotheque Nationale 
for the transcript of this passage from ms. lat. 7880, 2 (fol. $3 r<>), which, as has already been 
mentioned, is one of the two identical volumes into which the version of Leontius Pilatus 
was copied for Petrarch, and which contain his own annotations. See above, p. 49, n. 1. 
The passage in the original is : 

Kal AJ)$r)v cUor, r^v Tvvtaptov xapdicoirir, 
t) j> inrb Tvvbapty Kpar€p64>pop€ ytiraro tcuSc, 
Kdcropd B' lTx65afiop Kal xfl£ dyafov IIo\t/5ft/ffea. 


may perhaps be the reason why Benvenuto quotes almost exclusively from 
that book. But another explanation is possible. While the Latin trans- 
lation of Homer by Leontius Pilatus was in progress at Florence, under 
Boccaccio's roof, Petrarch became impatient, and wrote to Boccaccio to 
send him at least that portion of the Odyssey which describes the adven- 
tures of Ulysses in the nether world. 1 In compliance with this request 
Boccaccio copied out the desired extract, and despatched it separately to 
Petrarch. 1 Now it is by no means improbable that, when later he became 
possessed of the whole of the Latin version of Homer, Petrarch may have 
placed this fragment from the eleventh book of the Odyssey at the disposal 
of Benvenuto, in whose commentary on the Commedia he took a warm 
interest, if we are to believe the evidence of Benvenuto himself. Writing 
to Petrarch in the spring of 1374, only a few weeks before the old poet 
was found dead among his books at Arqua — the death he had longed 
for,* — Benvenuto says : " You must know that last year I put the finishing 
touch to my commentary on Dante, about which you used so often to 
enquire. I will send you a copy of it as soon as I can find a safe messen- 
ger." 4 From this reference to the commentary it is obvious that Petrarch 
was not only acquainted with the fact that Benvenuto was engaged upon 
it, but that he also encouraged him in his task. That Benvenuto da Imola 
was on terms of friendship, if not of intimacy, with Petrarch is well known. 
One of the last letters written by Petrarch before his death, if not actually 
the last, was addressed to Benvenuto from Padua in February 1374, in 
response to an enquiry from the latter as to whether poetry ought to be 

1 *• Partem illam Odysseae, qua Ulixes it ad inferos . . . quam primum potes . . . utcum- 
que tuis digitis exaratam" (Sen. Ill, Epist. v, ad fin. , Basle ed„ p. 776). Cf. Nolhac, 
op. cit., pp. 343-4. 

2 Cf. Nolhac, op. cit., p. 345. 

• Cf. Fam. praef. y ad fin.: " Scribendi mihi vivendique unus (ut auguror) finis erit " 
(Fracassetti, I, 25-6) ; Sen. XVI, Epist. 11 (Basle ed., p. 968, ad /in.) : "roe . . . opto ut 
legentero aut scribentem . . . mors inveniat." Cf. Nolhac, op. cit., pp. 74, 332 (n. 1), 349. 

< " Scias me anno praeterito extremam manum commentariis meis, quae olim tanto opere 
eflflagitasti, in Dantem praeceptorem meum imposuisse." Of course Benvenuto can here 
only be referring to the completion of the first draft of his commentary, for he certainly 
made subsequent additions to it, as is evident from the reference, for instance, to the destruc- 
tion of the Castle of Sant' Angelo at Rome in 1379 (voL II, pp. 8, 53). See above, p. 46, n. 1. 
The authenticity of this letter of Benvenuto to Petrarch (of which only a portion has been 
preserved) has been questioned, but, as it appears, on insufficient grounds. (See Lacaita, 
Benevenuti de Rambaldis de Imola Comentum super Dantis Aldighcrti Comocdiam, vol. I, 
pp. xxviij-xxx ; and Rossi-Case, Di Maestro Benvenuto da Imola, commentatore dantesco, 
pp. 75 fT.; and Ancora di Maestro Benvenuto, p. 14. For the other side of the question 
see articles by Novati in Giornale storico della Letteratura Ilaliana, XIV, 258 ff.; 
XVII, 93.) 


included among the liberal arts 1 ; and it was in reply to this epistle, to 
which allusion is twice made in his commentary on the Commedia,* that 
Benvenuto wrote the letter in which the passage quoted above occurs. 
Further, from a reference of Benvenuto's to Petrarch's personal habits, 3 
it is evident that he had, on one occasion at least, lived under the same 
roof with him, either as his guest, or as his host, or at the house of a 
common friend. There is nothing, therefore, inherently improbable in the 
supposition that Petrarch supplied Benvenuto with his duplicate of the 
Latin version of the eleventh book of the Odyssey \ by way of helping him 
in his magnum opus upon Dante. 

Benvenuto's references to the Odyssey, other than to the eleventh book, 
are, as has been noted, four in number. The opening line of the first 
book is quoted (vol. I, p. 77) from the Ars Poetica of Horace — "Die 
mihi, Musa, virum" (1. 141) — a passage which Petrarch, oddly enough, 
thought was a relic of a lost translation of Homer by Cicero. 4 From the 
tenth book are taken the accounts of Circe (vol. II, pp. 286-7), and of the 
wallet of winds given to Ulysses by Aeolus (vol. IV, p. 162); and from 
the twelfth book the account of the shipwreck of Ulysses in the straits of 
Messina (vol. II, p. 288).* 

Of Benvenuto's quotations from the Iliad, one, that of the opening line 
of the first book (vol. I, p. 77) : " I ram pande mihi Dea," appears to be 
cited (inaccurately, doubtless from memory) from the metrical epitome 
known as Pindarus Thcbanus de bello Trojano already mentioned," which 

Iram pande mihi Pelidae diva superbi. 

1 Sen. XIV, Efist. xi, Basle ed., pp. 941-2. A corrected text of this letter is printed by 
Rossi-Case, op. cit., pp. 72-4. 

2 Vol. I, p. 10 ; vol. IV, p. 230. It may be noted here that Benvenuto mentions Petrarch, 
whom he usually describes as 4 * novissimus poeta Petrarcha," no less than thirty times in 
his Commentary. 

» Vol. I, p. 224. 

* " Translationem illam veterem Ciceronis opus, quantum intelligere est, cujus principium 
Arti poeticae Flaccus inseruit, latinitati perditam, ut multa alia, et doleo et indignor" 
{Var. XXV, Fracassetti, III, 369). 

* It is not impossible that Benvenuto may have derived these three accounts at second 
hand from the De Gcnealogia Dcorum of Boccaccio with which he was certainly acquainted, 
for on one occasion at least he refers to it by name : " Johannes Boccacius, verius bucca 
aurea, venerabilis praeceptor meus, . . . ibi [sc Certaldo] pulcra opera edidit ; praecipue 
edidit unum librum magnum et utilem ad intelligentiam poeta mm, De Genealogiis Dcorum " 
(vol V, p. 164). Boccaccio's account of Circe is in Lib. IV, cap. 14, and Lib. XI, cap. 40; 
that of the shipwreck of Ulysses in Lib. XI, cap. 40 ; and that of Ulysses and Aeolus in 
Lib. Ill, cap. 20. In one instance, however (that of Circe) Benvenuto's account is somewhat 
fuller than that of Boccaccio. c See above, p. 45. 


At any'rate it does not come from the version of Leontius Pilatus, whose 
rendering of the first line of the Iliad is 

I ram cane dea Pellidis A chillis. 1 

Iliad, XVIII, 109-10, is quoted (vol. I, p. 26) from Aristotle*: " Ira 
est tarn delectabilis quod Aristoteles refert Homerum dbcisse quod ira 
est dulcior melle distillante. . . . Hoc autem scribit Homerus libro suae 

Benvenuto's other quotations from the Iliad are (vol. II, p. 88) from 
Iliad, I, 69-72, which has already been mentioned 8 ; (vol. II, p. 87) from 
Iliad, II, 123-8; (vol. Ill, p. 339) from Iliad, II, 690-1; (vol. II, p. 282) 
from Iliad, IV, 358 ; (vol. II, p. 280) from Iliad, V, p. 4 ; (voL III, p. 259) 
from Iliad, XXIV, 765-6. This last passage, as printed in Lacaita's 
edition of Benvenuto's commentary, refers to the twenty-third book of the 
Iliad, but this is doubtless due, either to a misprint, or to a mistake on 
the part of the copyists (XXIII, instead of XXI 1 1 1), for the reference is 
certainly to the twenty-fourth book. 4 

In what way Benvenuto da Imola obtained access to the Latin version 
of Homer made by Leontius Pilatus remains a matter of. conjecture. The 
eleventh book of the Odyssey, from which sixteen out of Benvenuto's 
twenty-eight quotations from Homer are taken, may very likely, as I have 

1 From Hortis, op. tit., p. 543. 

2 The passage occurs at the beginning of chap. 2 of the second book of the Dc Rhetorica. 
Aristotle, as a matter of fact, does not mention Homer, but merely gives the quotation with 
the observation icaXws cfpijTat ('*praeclare dictum est'*). Benvenuto doubtless got the 
reference to Homer from a marginal gloss. 

8 See above, p. 49. 

* Benvenuto says : " Debes scire quod tempore mortis Hectoris Helena jam steteret in 
Troia per spatium viginti annorum, ut scribit Homerus xxm (corr. xxmi) Iliados." 

That the passage Benvenuto had in mind comes from the twenty-fourth book is proved 
by the fact that Boccaccio in his Comcnto refers to the same passage, which he expressly 
states to be in the last book of the Iliad. He says (on Inferno, V, 64-5) : " la quale lunga 
dimension di tempo fu per ispazio di venti anni, cioe dal di che Elena fu rapita, al di che 
a Menelao fu restituita ; perciocche tanto stette Elena in Troia, e alquanto piu, siccome 
Omero neir ultimo libro della sua Iliade dimostra laddove lei piangendo sopra il morto 
corpo di Ettore, fa dire quasi queste parole, che essendo ella stata venti anni appo Priamo 
e i figliuoli, mai Ettore non le avea detta una ingiuriosa parola." (Lcz. xvin, vol. I, p. 462.) 
The passage referred to in the Iliad is the following (XXIV, 765-;) :— 
"R8ri 7&p vvv ftai tW ietKodrbv trw icriv, 
1% ov K€i$€v (fop, koI ifirjs dreXiJXvfla irdrpijt • 
dXX' ovvo) <rcv Aicovaa kclk6p %tos, oW' d<nJ0i;Xor. 

It is not unlikely that Benvenuto took his reference to this passage at second-hand from 
the Comcnto of Boccaccio. 


shown above, have been supplied to him by Petrarch. Complete mss. of 
Leontius' version cannot have been common in Benvenuto's day — nor 
indeed do they appear to have been common at any time, for only two 
copies apparently are known at the present day, viz. the Iliad and Odyssey, 
which formerly belonged to Petrarch, now in the Bibliotheque nationale 
(Ms. lat 7880, 1, 2), and the Iliad in the Magliabechiana, and Odyssey 
in the Laurenziana at Florence. 1 We may suppose, therefore, that for his 
other references, in so far as they were not taken at second-hand from the 
Comento* or the De Cenealogia Deorum* of Boccaccio, Benvenuto was 
indebted either to the oral instruction of •* venerabilis praeceptor meus 
Boccaccius de Certaldo," 4 or to friendly communications on the part of 
" Petrarch a noster,"* who alone, so far as we know, were in possession 
of copies of the translation by Leontius Pilatus. 

1 See Hortis, op. tit., pp. 508, 543, 562. We find Coluccio Salutati in a letter to Francesco 
Brum, dated July 15, 1S67 (ed. Novati, I, 267) referring to Homer for an account of the 
Sirens, but his description has ever}' appearance of having been taken from the De Genea- 
logia Deorum of Boccaccio (VII, 20). From a letter of Salutati to Antonio Loschi, dated 
July 21, 1392 (ed. Novati, II, 354), it appears that the latter, who had in mind to make a 
metrical version of the Iliad, had read, and perhaps transcribed the translation of Leontius 
Pilatus, which Salutati refers to as " Homerice translationem Iliados, horridam et incultam." 
In another letter to the same correspondent, dated Sept. 29, 1392 (ed. Novati, II, 39S), Salu- 
tati refers to the Iliad and Odyssey in a way which gives the impression that he had read 
portions at least of both poems. To judge, however, from the infrequency of his references 
to Homer, Salutati's acquaintance with the Iliad and Odyssey cannot have been very 
extensive. Besides the references already mentioned I have only noted the following : ed. 
Novati, III, 269, 274 (where the first line of the so-called Pindarus Thebanus is quoted). 
389, 491, 545, 548 ; none of these is to the Odyssey. 

2 See above, p. 53, n. 4. 

* See above, p. 52, n. 5. 

* Bcncvenuti Content urn, vol. I. p. 79; V, pp. 145, 164, 301. Benvenuto several times in 
his commentary mentions that he derived information from Boccaccio (see, for instance, 
vol. I, pp. 34, 461 ; vol. V, p. 301 ; and we know from his own statement (vol V, p. 145 : 
"dum audirem venerabilem praeceptorem meum Boccaccium de Certaldo legentem istum 
nobilem poetam in ecclesia sancti Stephani ") that he was present during a portion at least 
of Boccaccio's lectures on the Divina Commedia at Florence. 

* Bencvenuti Content urn, vol. Ill, p. 14;. 

Paget Toynhee.